LoadRunner Architecture (www.LoadRunner.Info)
As of November 28, 2007, the URL LoadRunner.com redirects you to HP's Performance Center product page. The URL for Mercury.com is redirected to HP's BTO page. HP BTO Training is now at merc-training.com - 877-837-8457.
Topics this page:
Doubt is not a pleasant condition, but certainty is absurd.
Requests from many virtual user clients are generated by "Load Generators" in order to create a load on various servers under test
These load generator agents are started and stopped by the "Controller" program.
The Controller controls load test runs based on "Scenarios" invoking compiled "Scripts" and associated "Run-time Settings".
Scripts are crafted using the "Virtual user script Generator" (named "V U Gen"), It generates C-language script code to be executed by virtual users by capturing network traffic between Internet application clients and servers.
With Java clients, VuGen captures calls by hooking within the client JVM.
During runs, the status of each machine is monitored by the Controller.
At the end of each run, the Controller combines its monitoring logs with logs obtained from load generators, and makes them available to the "Analysis" program, which can then create run result reports and graphs for Microsoft Word, Crystal Reports, or an HTML webpage browser.
Each HTML report page generated by Analysis includes a link to results in a text file which Microsoft Excel can open to perform additional analysis.
Load generators are controlled by VuGen scripts which issue non-GUI API calls using the same protocols as the client under test. But WinRunner GUI Vusers emulate keystrokes, mouse clicks, and other User Interface actions on the client being tested Only one GUI user can run from a machine unless LoadRunner Terminal Services Manager manages remote machines with Terminal Server Agent enabled and logged into a Terminal Services Client session.
During run-time, threaded vusers share a common memory pool. So threading supports more Vusers per load generator.
The Status of Vusers on all load generators start from "Running", then go to "Ready" after going through the init section of the script. Vusers are "Finished" in passed or failed end status. Vusers are automatically "Stopped" when the Load Generator is overloaded.
No additional license is needed to monitor standard web (HTTP) servers (Apache, IIS, and Netscape).
To use Web Services Monitors for SOAP and XML, a separate license is needed, and vUsers require the Web Services add-in installed with Feature Pack (FP1)
Version 9.51 patch to 9.50 (file KM750376 file LR_03009.zip, dated July 6, 2009, is a 201 MB zip. enables better AJAX recognition and specification of DOM element properties. This runs GACSetup.exe and Magentconfig.exe, which require Vista users to allow.
Version 9.50 available June 2009,
Version 9.10 installer, available Feb. 2008, is 2.31 GB after expansion. However, the folder created after an English language install is 931MB.
Version 8.1 Feature Pack 4 patch installer LR81FP4P136.exe at 7,786,800 bytes, was signed on January 2, 2007 as file 184.108.40.206 (Build: 1735) is Recorder Version: 1290.
Version 8.1 Feature Pack 4 installer LR81FP4.exe, at 194,644,720 bytes, was signed on December 15, 2006 as file version 220.127.116.11 (Build: 2249) is Recorder Version: 1289. This requires an upgrade to MS.NET 2.0 clients.
Version 8.1 Feature Pack 3 installer LR81FP3.exe, at 116,601,240 bytes, was signed on June 18, 2006 as file version 18.104.22.168 (Build 2085). It installs (as an item on your Start > Program Files) Microsoft WSE (Web Services Enhancements) 2.0 SP3 to deploy security policies for sytems running .NET Framework 1.1.
Version 8.1 became available October 2005. In VuGen it adds a "Workflow View", "Workflow Wizard", and a memory leak which is fixed with a patch downloadable since Dec. 2005. It renames the VuGen "Execution Log" the "Replay Log".
Version 8.0 became available August 2004. It adds "Additional Attributes" to Runtime Settings. It also adds (for additional fee) diagnostics and tuning capabilities, allowing Transaction Breakdown to breakdown transaction times across different servers servicing various transaction layers (web server, Oracle 11i & Peoplesoft 8 app server, database) layers. It separates SQL time in execute, parse, and fetch times.
Version 7.8 Feature Pack 1 added support for Windows XP.
Version 7.8 became available September 2003.
Version 6.5 available June 2000 offered new "TurboLoad" technology -- a completely new replay engine that runs thousands of vusers using a single operating system thread.
Version 6.0 used a separate thread per user, which required almost 10 times more i/o and CPU cycles than 6.5.
Note: Links to documents that used to be here were removed after Mercury Interactive, Inc. lawyers demanded their removal. Page numbers in online pdf files are different (have more pages) than page numbers in the paper document of the same title.
Although version 9.10 is now installed under "HP", "Mercury" remains under Program Files\Common Files, its \TDAPI\Client folder contains files TDCIntui.dll and tdclient.dll.
These, the hidden folder C:\Config.Msi, the MacroVision folder (within Documents and Settings\All Users.WINDWS\Application Data), and many other files remain after uninstall.
Over three thousand entries also remain within the Windows Registry after uninstall.
Alex Arbitman's LR 7.8 Footprints.xls reports that to run Web requires __ per process and __ per thread.
To keep Windows Remote Desktop Connection sessions from timing out during a test, the Terminal Services on each machine should be configured as follows:
Make sure that when you do this you're not violating one of your corporation's security policies.
Terminal Server only allows two simultaneous connections. To disconnect from a session, do not click "X" on the remote desktop window but click Start and Log Off.
The Web Testing Handbook (S T Q E Pub, Jan. 2001) by Steven Splaine, Stefan P. Jaskiel, Alberto Savoia is a good overview introduction, but does not make you an expert.
I recommend that you put downloaded LoadRunner installation files and patches to a separate media such as a CD or USB drive. Then mark those files as read-only.
Disable your anti-virus software (Symantec, McAfee, etc.) before invoking on installers.
If you are running with an Intel chip, disable Intel Hyper-Threading technology by shutting down and entering BIOS. Microsoft's information on this.
Virus Detection engines may find that program regtlb.exe (which registers/unregisters type libraries) to contain a "virus" they call "Backdoor.Win32.PoeBot.15872". Automatic repair by the virus remover will break those files
To avoid LR 9.x VuGen recording problems on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2003, open Start > Control Panel > System, Advanced tab, click Performance settings. In the Performance Options Data Execution Prevention tab, select "DEP for essential services only", then reboot the machine.
due to a strange bug with v8.0, before you do that, first install the Load Generator, then return to install "custom" components.
The UNIX CD installs only the Load Generator (not the Controller or VuGen) on UNIX machines because the Controller and VuGen only run on Windows machines.
Zero fill machine names to t001, ... t010, etc. The LR Controller sorts machines named t1, t2, ... t10 as t1, t10, t2.adds files in Program Files, Windows folder, and the Windows Registry that are NOT removed during un-installation.
If you get a "License violation" message, you need to get from HP support a one-day license key to install with.
Program Files (x86) is the default folder if you install LoadRunner on a 64 bit machine.
Different versions of LoadRunner are installed to different locations:
LoadRunner 9.1 and 9.5 executable files are installed to file path
LoadRunner 8.1 and 9.0 executable files are installed to file path
LoadRunner 8.0 "stutters" when it installs to its default file path
Note: Even though 8.0 uses a different folder, folders created by previous versions still need to be removed before its installation.
LoadRunner 7.8 executable files are installed to file path
To quickly get at this LoadRunner installation folder, create an environment variable named "LR91" so you can use a quick command such as
To get at this folder quickly, I created a batch file named "L.bat" in the cmd's default C:\ root folder containing this:
cd \Program Files\HP\LoadRunner\binI created a shortcut to this file on my desktop and dragged it over Windows so that I can click into that folder from anywhere. The pause command ensures that the command window does not disappear automatically. Alternately, from within a command window I can just type "L" and press Enter.
After installation, to switch from running LoadRunner as a service to running as a process:
To install LoadRunner as a service:
These commands do not result in response messages. But they do put the m_agent_attribs.cfg file in the load generator's C:\ root folder.
If you do not have Administrator rights and try to change the UserID: Admin and Password: Admin, you will see message ERROR: "29972:- Failed to reset launcher status call back function reason:no monikor was passed.
On a UNIX machine, the agent is configured by editing the br_Inch_server.cfg file in the dat folder under the LoadRunner root folder.
Confirm & Ensure Agent ReadinessAt the Controller's Load Generators dialog, you should see "Ready" (for the agent you highlighted) after you click the "Connect" button.
Repeat these commands if you get message "Failed to connect to the agent. Load Generator not responding after timout Command line that was executed:"
If this still doesn't result in "Ready" Status, go to Windows Services on the load generator client machine and kill, then remove the "LoadRunner Agent Service" before repeating the above commands.
Set FireWallServiceActive to 1 for true or 0 for false. Run bin/agent_config
Using network drive mappingsIf several load generators need to access the same physical files, rather than having to remember to copy the files each time they change, each load generator can reference a common folder using a mapped drive. But since drive mappings are associated with a specific user:
The purpose of a firewall is to increase security by blocking communications and allowing communications only certain ports, such as 80 and 443 for HTTP and HTTPS traffic.
By default, the LoadRunner Controller uses TCP port 50500 to send data to TCP port 54345 on the Windows Load Generator.
The Load Generator sends information back via a dynamic port. through the MI Listener.
To avoid having to beg Network Administrators for more ports to be opened, on each load generator machine inside the firewall, from Start > Programs > ... LoadRunner > Advanced Settings > Agent Configuration (launch_service\bin\AgentConfig.exe) install the (Monitoring Over Firewall machine) MoFW/RoWF agent. Check the option "Enable Firewall Agent".
It collects performance counters and sends them to a controller over a firewall.
LoadRunner 7.8 automates what LoadRunner 7.6 and earlier versions required you to go into "Agent Settings" to change the mdrv.dat file within the dat folder where LoadRunner is installed. The [FireWall] section should be changed to contain "FireWallServiceActive=1". This should cause the tiny stoplight to turn green in the agent icon on the toolbar.
MoFW communicates with the MI Listener through port 443, so you can't have any web servers (like Apache WebTours, IIS, or Oracle HTTP servers) running on both the machines.
Verify whether port 443 actually allows communication by running command and substituting the ip address in:
This should open a telnet window.
When defining a "remote" load generator from within the Controller, click "Details" for the "Load Generator Information" dialog, where you can click the "Firewall" tab and check "Enable Firewall".
Monitoring UNIX MachinesBefore starting a run on Linux, check to make sure that rstatd monitors are active. If rstatd services are dropped when a server becomes too busy or is restarted, LoadRunner 7.8 does not attempt to re-acquire information from rstatd. The work-around is to exit and reinitialize the Controller again.
MI Listener for HTTPS/SSL TrafficWhen agents send HTTPS traffic (through port 443) from behind a firewall, it uses the "Monitoring over Firewall Component" and the Controller communicates uses a symbolic name for the agent through the MI Listener Machine (through port 50500) outside the firewall. Monitoring of Windows machines through a firewall use TCP port 139.
To test outside the firewall mercuryinteractive.com/products/protune_ds/ Mercury ProTune Delivery Service
Where Did The Screen Go?VuGen remembers the screen coordinates you were when you last close VuGen. The bad thing about this is that if you use a second monitor to extend your screen and disconnect it to use a single monitor, nothing will appear on that one screen because VuGen still thinks you have that extended screen. The solution is to edit the vugen.ini file within the config folder where LoadRunner is installed, search for x=, then change entries x=-9 and y=-9. Also, Maximized=1 specifies VuGen to be maximized.
LoadRunner script code is usually obtained from recording in ANSI C language syntax, represented by icons in icon view until you click Script View.
DotNet PatchLR 9.0 installs .NET 3.5.
With LR 7.9, before recording against applications running within Microsoft's .NET Framework \ runtime on Window XP platform using LoadRunner7.8:
File LocationsI recommend that you store all files to a drive letter you created (by mapping to a folder). This makes it easier to override LoadRunner's defaults initially and also easier to remain consistent when you change machines and drives over time, especially when several testers use LoadRunner.
By default, .htm and resource files captured during a script's development are stored in a data folder created for each script under the scripts folder within Program Files.
Each script's run-time settings are stored in that script's .cfg file within each Vuser script's directory for use by both VuGen.exe and the LR Controller.
VuGen stores and retrieves Windows Registry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \SOFTWARE \Mercury Interactive \LoadRunner key RecentScripts every script.
VuGen also stores and retrieves Windows Registry key Test Results \ Recent File List the location of every .qtp file generated.
The maximum number of scripts displayed in the Available Scripts list is stored in Registry key HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ Software \ Mercury Interactive \ RecentScripts \ max_num_of_scripts
By default, data files (containing URLs, userids, etc.) created within a script reside in that script's folder. I like leaving it there rather than moving it to the common root shared by all scripts because VuGen automatically copies those files when you save or import a script. Plus, changing the data structure of a common file disables previous versions of the script.
I like random access to data files because it's a easy way to test multiple values from within VuGen — I just run the script again. However, since VuGen always uses the first value when Sequential access is specified, to exercise multiple values I have to either change the data file or run the script again within the Controller.
Results from each LR run is stored in its own folder under the "Results" folder.
If the lr_end_transaction command does not use exactly the same name as its corresponding lr_start_transaction name, all subsequent actions will be under that transaction.
If an Web SSL script works in the Controller but not vuGen, try changing the controller's Runtime Settings Preferences to "WININET replay instead of Sockets".
To enable VuGen to record nca_java_action and other functions against Java objects, the application server needs to be configured to provide the necessary data. To do this, edit the startup HTML file that is called when the applet viewer begins. Modify the line:
<PARAM name="serverArgs ............ fndnam=APPS"> and add the Oracle key "record=names": <PARAM name="serverArgs ............ fndnam=APPS record=names">
KB article 11367 on "Manual collation of result set data" explains this in detail.
Scenarios encapsulate the Vuser Groups and scripts to be executed on load generators at run-time.
Manual scenarios can distribute the total number of Vusers among scripts based on the analyst-specified percentage (evenly among load generators).
Goal Oriented scenarios are automatically created based on a specified transaction response time or number of hits/transactions-per-second (TPS). Test analysts specify the % of Target among scripts.
When scheduled to Run until completion, the Quantity for a Scenario is the number of vusers running one at a time.
When scheduled to Run for a period of time, the Quantity for a Scenario
is the number of vusers running simultaneously.
To run a specific number of vusers simultaneously, set the Parameter file in the script (in VuGen) to Abort after reaching the end of file.
The Controller saves these settings in the .lrr file specified in the Results Settings dialog.
UTC (GMT) start date/time : 2005-08-02 02:31:30 [MsgId: MMSG-26000] LOCAL start date/time : 2005-08-01 21:31:30 [MsgId: MMSG-26000] Local daylight-Savings-Time: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26000] Some of the Run-Time Settings: [MsgId: MMSG-27142] Run Mode: HTML [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Download non-HTML resources: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Verification checks: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Simulate a new user each iteration: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Non-critical item errors as warnings: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] WinInet replay instead of Sockets: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] HTTP version: 1.1 [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Keep-Alive HTTP connections: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Max self Meta refresh updates: 2 [MsgId: MMSG-26844] No proxy is used (direct connection to the Internet) [MsgId: MMSG-27171] DNS caching: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Simulate browser cache: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Cache URLs requiring content (e.g., HTMLs): Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Additional URLs requiring content: None [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Check for newer versions every visit to the page: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Page download timeout (sec): 120 [MsgId: MMSG-26844] Resource Page Timeout is a Warning: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] ContentCheck enabled: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] ContentCheck script-level file: "C:\...\LrwiAedScript.xml" [MsgId: MMSG-26842] Enable Web Page Breakdown: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Enable connection data points: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Process socket after reschedule: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Snapshot on error: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Define each step as a transaction: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Read beyond Content-Length: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Parse HTML Content-Type: TEXT [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Graph hits per second and HTTP status codes: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Graph response bytes per second: Yes [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Graph pages per second: No [MsgId: MMSG-26845] Web recorder version ID: 5 [MsgId: MMSG-26844]
"[MsgId: MMSG-26842]" in LR 8.0 was "[MsgId: MMSG-26844]" in LR 7.8
If a transaction fails, search the load generator machine for log files containing text such as
where xxx is the last few characters of the transaction name.
LR vuGen stores logs (for a "null" user) in the "output.txt" file.
LR Controller stores logs for each vuser within a folder hierarchy:
starting from the folder specified when defining Generators.
Then under that folder the Generator creates folders with a random name such as "brr_rf2.63".
Under each of those folders is a netdir folder which contains the folder specified for Results within the Controller.
A separate file is create for each group.vuser number.
Search and Replace and other such utility can be used to search across several log files for a particular text such as "error -".
Efficient Search from Sowsoft works faster than Microsoft's search, and retrieves your specifications it stores in the Windows Registry.
Groups exists with a scenario. So "Scenario Scheduling" involves changing settings for all groups.
__ Initialize all Vusers before Run?
One way to determine appropriate ramp up time to specify is to set vusers to start simultaneously, then look at the resulting rate Running Vusers drop off after processing (such as 10 users within a 15 second span).
These are usually the most important relationships under study.
LR does not remember most scenario graph settings (4 graphs is the hard coded default). So instead of building graphs from scratch, I start from opening and then changing my custom but standard scenario file.
Delete graph definitions you don't need to ever see. LR collects data for graphs even if it is not displayed.
By default, the Controller online monitor shows a maximum of 20 measurements for each graph. To increase it, go to the LoadRunner\dat\online_graphs directory to modify the value of MaxDispMeasurments= in the file controlling each type of graph:
Default counters for the System Resource, Microsoft IIS, Microsoft ASP, or SQL Server monitors are defined in the res_mon.dft file within the LoadRunner/dat folder. Its values can be pasted from the [MonItemPlus] section within scenario .lrs files.
UNIX Resources and some other graphs are continuously updated even after the test is done. So immediately after the scenario runs, right-click on the graph to freeze the values displayed to lock in values associated with other graphs.
Installation tip: If the Web Resource Graph is blank, try re-registering .dll files by running MS-DOS Batch Files register_controller.bat and set_mon.bat in the LoadRunner\bin folder.
Actions are executed sequentially in the order shown in Run-time Settings. However, transactions that start and stop between two observations will appear to be running simultaneously even if they were actually executed sequentially. An observation interval of 4 seconds is the most often that you can set for Controller on-line graph (to prevent too much CPU-intensive graphic refresh time from consuming the Controller machine). But Analysis reports will show more granularity than on-line graphs — down to 1 second.
Any of these can be set as hidden in the New Script dialog if the protocol is marked with "Hidden=1" (rather than Not Hidden "Hidden=0") in file .\dat\protocols\webjs.lrp.
Component counters on the right column should total to the value of the summary counter on the left. A total counter is broken down into detail counters.
Metrics in parentheses, such as (Accepted), are not collected by the system because they are assumed and can be derived by subtracting from the total all other related counters.
ASP metrics does not include Residence time (the sum of Wait time and Service time) and Utilization.
The $800 SPECweb99 (v1.0 announced 1999) and SPECweb99_SSL (March 2002) pre-defined workload generators benchmark the number of WWW server connections per second specific hardware configurations can sustain require a sustained throughput of 400 and 320 Kbps in order for its measurements to be considered conforming.
The free Mindcraft WebStone 2.5 benchmark improves on the 1995 version originally from Silicon Graphics by also simulating the activity of 100's of web clients on a computer making GET calls to CGI and server API as well as static HTML pages. Its run rules currently does not support POST, SSL, Authentication, HTTP 1.1, HTTP 1.0 keep-alives, Cookies, dynamic workloads with database access.
The TPC (Transaction Performance Council's) TPC-W Web eCommerce benchmark (first announced July 2000 & with v1.8 published Feb 2002) measures the number of Web Interactions processed Per Second (WIPS) from a "Web Interaction Mix" of Shopping (WIPS), browsing (WIPSb) and ordering (WIPSo) transactions simulating a retail bookstore with 14 web pages, including shopping cart functionality. The top audited price/performance result on 01/28/02 is a TCO-based range of US$24.50 - $277.08/WIPS using IIS5 & SQL2000 within Windows 20003AS on a Dell server. Audited performance characteristics are detailed by web server, web cache, database server, and image server. The benchmark measures scalability by providing a Remote Browser Emulator (RBE) executable that (without client caching) simulates 2880 different users accessing databases at various scales (10,000 or 100,000, etc. unique product items within a schema of 8 tables) on database servers with 2 to 4 gigabytes of memory (with a 30 second non-SSL cache time-out). So TPC-W requires a network topology that supports several 100 Mbytes/sec of data. User think time is based upon a distribution with an average of 7 seconds and a maximum of 70 seconds. Article by Wayne D. Smith, Intel Corporation
Loadrunner obtains values for these counters from issuing http://server /server-status?auto
The number and description of Apache counters are specified in LoadRunner's \dat\monitors\apache.cfg file.
This file should be replaced with apache_2.0.x.cfg if you are using Apache v2.
The Transactions Per Second (passed and failed) and Transaction Response Time obtained from user-defined data points from Virtual Users are detailed by Web Page Breakdown Graphs which break down Virtual Users' client-side transaction times obtained from Web Server Resource Monitors.
Web Page Breakdown graphs are available in Analysis only if before the run,
in LR Controller
BOTH the "Enable the following diagnostics" and
the "Web page Diagnostics" checkbox are checked.
This explains the default order of Page Download Time Breakdown graph measurements:
Time to First Buffer Breakdown (Over Time) GraphThe Time to First Buffer Breakdown (Over Time) graph separates server- or network-related time (in seconds).
Each column represents a different hit (resource). The Average and Maximum
Also, in the LoadRunner\bin\dat directory, use MS Access 2000 to open loader2.mdb or use MS Access 97 to open loader.mdb. Highlight the Breakdown_map table, select design view, and change the "Event Name" column size to 255.
The Throughput graph shows the amount of throughput on the Web server (y axis) during each second of the scenario run (x axis).
The Hits Per Second graph shows the number of hits on the Web server (y axis) as a function of the elapsed time in the scenario (x axis).
The less time per transaction, the greater a system's throughput, as expressed by the formula derived from Little's Law:
So when no think time is used, the number of virtual users can be calculated by this formula suggested by Menasce & Almeida:
For example, to simulate 1,000 real users using 2 second response time and 20 second think times:
The red cirles on this graph helps you visualize that the throughput rate of 20 TPS (Transactions Per Second) can be achieved by several combinations of Vusers (load generation worker threads) and think times between each transaction.
Each of these combinations achieves 20 TPS.
If you define a transaction within another transaction, an error will be counted twice in the Controller Scenario Status Failed Transactions statistic, one under each transaction summary.
System Loadis measured by a rate -- the total number of tasks performed during a certain period (an hour, day, week, month, quarter, year, etc.). Example: 300 transactions per second.
There can be several levels of load:
Task Distribution Profilespresent a two-dimensional view of the number of tasks performed over continuous segments on a timeline.
A prioritization of metrics (Crucial, Primary, Minor) on the List of Monitoring Environments
A Risk Profile may also include an estimation of risk of malfunction and likelihood of impact to the business.
Standard DeviationStandard deviation is a statistical measure of the extent of variation in a set of data. The standard deviation tells you the extent of the spread of individual items around the average.
The number in the 90% column is shown after a run is completed in the Analysis program, not in the Controller) because it is calculated by sorting all items by value obtained during the run, then identifying the value associated the item at the top 10% of all items.
The CV (Coefficient of Variation) makes the standard deviation number easier to comprehend by representing it as a multiple of the average.
Statistical SignificanceMeasures of variation are necessary to determine whether two averages are different enough to not have occured by mere chance. Results need to be standardized to a standard distribution in order to determine the extent of random chance. This is a mathematical technique called ANOVA (ANalysis of Variance), an extension of the t-Test to an arbitrary number of factors and levels. The shape of the standard distribution could be bell-shaped normal distribution or an exponential gamma distribution.
If one average is larger than the 90% number of another average, there is a good chance are that there is a significant difference between the two averages.
But a statistically significant effect is not necessarily practically significant.
"Beyond Performance Testing" addresses the iterative process what happens after initial test results are collected, the part it takes a human brain to accomplish.
Do this after each run until LoadRunner developers give us a toggle that does it for us (which would save those of us on the ground doing the work a lot of time)
Merged Graphs defined in the Controller are not carried over to Analysis. So you have to recreate them.
To combine/merge graphs such as "Running Vusers" and "Transaction Response time":
Popular reasons for duplicating a [Whole Run] graph are listed below.
I like to erase the default name "Copy of ..." and at the end of the
graph name add a marker such as the words in brackets above.
This is so that similar graphs remain vertically aligned.
The Analysis Module can cross-result native Windows NT/200X Perfmon statistics within graphs of LoadRunner output.
Colors are selected by Analysis pretty much at random — so (annoyingly) the same color can be used for two different lines on the same graph. [you would think it should be smarter than that]
Since you have to manually assign colors anyway,
consider using a standard set of basic colors for major metrics:
Excel files generated with the HTML report are scaled. So either change all scale to 1 before creating the HTML report, or multiply the numbers in the spreadsheet.
First, internal IP addresses (such as 192.168.1.1) may need to be allocated by the organization's Network Administrator unless you're working in a closed network.
The IP Wizard program (ipwizard.exe in LR bin) is used to define multiple IP addresses on each load generator host. However, the hosts must use static IP addresses rather than DHCP to dynamically assign addresses.
Note: IP addresses include two components, a netid and hostid. The submask determines where the netid portion of the address stops and where the hostid begins.
When a host machine is re-started, routing tables are updated with the new addresses.
The IP Wizard program creates a batch file (nt_routing.bat for Windows and unix_routing.bat for UNIX machines) and .ips file which updates IP tables.
To enable multiple IP Addressing At the LoadRunner Controller, pull down menu item Scenario, check "Enable IP Spoofer" (In earlier versions, "Enable Multiple IP Addresses"). This enables "Multiple IP address mode" in the Options dialog General tab, which appears after "Expert mode" is checked on the Tools drop-down menu. IP allocation should be consistent with the way users are running. If users are running as a process then the IP allocation should be done as a process, and if users are running as a thread then IP allocation should be done as a thread
After turning IP spoofing on or off, for the setting to take effect, the Load Generator needs to be disconnected and reconnected again.
As of July 15, 2008: HP abandoned use of the "HP Certified Professional" designation.
To become an ASE (Accredited Systems Engineer) of HP's Performance Center v9.0, take two exams each costing $750. In Aug. 08, it is conducted once a month (on a Friday) only at HP education vendor SkyIT in New York City, NY 10001 (2 Blocks S. of PENN Station) 330 7th Avenue, 12th Floor. Phone: 866.641.6017, (919) 544-2354 Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Register HP0-M84 (Performance Testing using HP LoadRunner Software Software) The performance-based activities of this exam require you to:
You are given 3 hourse to answer 70% of 60 multi-choice questions.
As of September 1, 2008, HP no longer recognizes Mercury's CPC (Certified Product Consultant) certification, which cost $2,500 and took 8 hours at a Mercury office. (about 5+ hrs of programming and 3+ hrs of questions, at your own discretion). So if you devote a steady 8 solid hours of study each week, you'll need (36/8) 5 weeks.
Before allowing you into their product support pages or receive your calls at 408.822-5400 (press 1 for support, then 3 for LoadRunner) HP Mercury Software Support requires that you provide your “SAID (Software ID). Mercury's Maintenance Number(MPN) is no longer used. This number is stored in the "LoadRunner_SerialNumber" entry in the mercury.ini file created during installation within C:\WINNT.
This is, in effect, is the extreme opposite of the open-source paradigm.
Surgient Virtual QA/Test Lab Management System (VQMS) HP Software Customer Connection portal to HP Software Universe user convention and Vivit user group events.
Loadrunner Yahoo Group has amassed over 10,000 messages since 1999.
Google group comp.software.testing has "loadrunner" threads among other topics. I have written to Google about splitting it up.
The TCQAA Mercury Forum has had few entries, but worth an occassional look.
LoadRunner competes with several other load testing products and services
An additional license is not needed for LR 7.8, but is needed for LR 7.6.
Mercury Knowledge Base article 22664 notes that RPM requires IIS Server 4.0 or 5.0 on Windows 2000, but NOT IIS 6.0 installed with Windows 2003 servers.
If the Controller was installed on a Windows XP machine and the RPM server is installed on a Window 2000 Server, or Windows NT machine with IIS 4.0, the XP Controller machine's Local Security Policy "Network Security: Sharing and Security model for local accounts" should be changed from "Guest Only" to "Classic". During RPM installation:
In Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Internet Services Manager right-click on your IIS server for New, Web Site. In the Web Site Creation Wizard, specify name "RemoteView", then Browse to associate that name with the "WWW Pages" folder.
To start the newly defined site, you need to restart the IIS server, then start a scenario in the Controller so that it displays monitored information. If you try to view the monitor in Internet Explorer when the Controller is not running a scenario, you will be brought back to the Login page.
Verify the site using a browser URL http://loadclient1/RemoteView
It features a not very helpful "one size fits all" error message:
Either the Controller is not running or there is not an active scenario on the specified server or your RPM Server is not configured properly.
Each remote viewer can select and customize the graphs to monitor.
RPM times out if there is no browser activity for 20 minutes. This then requires another user login.
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