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Reload this page Historical Events

Here are my notes about major historical events throughout the world, arranged in chronological order. This was compiled as a quick reference for art and religious history,

tool Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN)
tool U.S. Census Gazetteer provides decimal coordinates by U.S. place names or zip code.

Sound: Historical Theme
“Oh Lord Jesus, this can't be happening” from the movie Aliens

 

The Periods of History:

  • Pre/virtual History
  • Early Biblical History
  • Age of Law
  • Inter-testament
  • Time of Christ
  • Apostolic Early Christian
  • Roman Persecutions
  • Byzantine/Constantine
  • Middle Ages
  • Medieval Period
  • Renaissance/Reformation
  • Modern Times
  • Future
  • Your comments???
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  • Set this at top of window. History Trivia Quiz

    1. Who is buried in Grant's Tomb?
    2. How long did the Hundred Years War last?
    3. Which country makes Panama hats?
    4. From which animal do we get catgut?
    5. In which month do Russians celebrate the October Revolution?
    6. What is a camel's hair brush made of?
    7. The Canary Islands in the Pacific are named after what animal?
    8. What was King George VI's first name?
    9. What color is a purple finch?
    10. Where are Chinese gooseberries from?
    11. How long did the Thirty Years War last?
     


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    Gelogic Time:

    Precambrian
    -4.6 Billion years

    Cambrian
    -570 million years

    Mesozoic
    -225 million years

    Holocene
    (Recent era)
    -10,000 years

    Paleolithic
    -9000

    Neolithic
    -4500 in India

    Calcolitic
    (copper)
    -3150

    Biblical vs.
    Egyptian
    Timeline

    Pre (Virtual) History B.C./B.C.E. (Before Christ / Before the Common Era)


    3.8-4 million BC ? First bipedal human in Ethiopia
    500,000 BCE ? Peking Man, Java Man
    Dinosaurs lived in the Mesozoic era
    35,000 Upper Paleolithic Period, when first humans are believed to arrive in North America and Asia.
    15,000 Wall paintings made in caves at Lascaux, France and Altamira, Spain.
    Nephilim (Genesis 6:4-6)

    5762 - the Year of creation according to Alan D. Corré.
    5176(+/-26) - the Year of creation as estimated by Gerald E. Aardsma
    [October 23, 4004] is Date of Creation according to "Annals of the World" (1600 pages in Latin) by Irish Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656)

    No date? Earth's moon created when planet Rahab, located between Mars and Jupiter, destroyed into the Asteroid Belt? (Job 26:11-14, Psalm 89:9-14, Isaiah 51:9-16)
    ? [4043] Adam created by God (Gen 2)
    ? [4003] Adam & Eve expelled from Garden of Eden (Gen 3)
    No date Enoch translated (midway between Adam & Abraham)

    Set this at top of window. Early Biblical History


    Jan 1, 4712 BC - First Julian Dateanother page on this site on the Gregorian Calendar.
    3913 Seth born when Adam was 130 years old (Genesis 5:3)
    3808 Enosh born when Seth was 105 (Genesis 5:6)
    Oct 7, 3761 BC, Hebrew (lunar) calendar starts on a New Moon (Molad) on 1 Tishrei (New Yearanother page on this site).

    3520(+/-21) [Usher 2348] Methuselah dies at 969 years old (Gen 7:27), his death shall bring the one-year flood of Noah on 17th Nisan. This begins 427-year Dispensation of Human Government.
    Post-diluvian times:

    3167 Abram (father of many) from Ur, Assyria Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) born (Gen 11:26-32; Gen 12:4; Acts 7:4)

    3114 the epoch (beginning) of the Mayan calendar (on 11 Aug)
    3100 First war recorded (in Egyptian hieroglyphics) about Pharaoh Narmer "Menes the Fighter" uniting Upper and Lower Egypt.

    ? Job of the Chaldeans leaves Iraq.

    3092(+/-16) [1630] God calls Abraham to leave Ur, settle a while in Haran, Egypt, then Canaan.
    3067 Issac born (Gen 25:26)
    ? Ishmael cast out (Gen 21:8-10)
    ? Issac (Genesis 26:17-25) wife Rebecca from Iraq (Genesis 24:4,10)
    ? Semite Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed
    3007 Jacob (=by might) born (Gen 47:9) (Gen. 28:10-12, 32 & 35:1-7)
    2916 Joseph born (Gen 41:46)

    2952(+/-51) Egypt's Early Dynastic period ends with Dynasty 3.
    2879-2872 (Transition from Early Broze age I and II) high residue radioactivity in tree rings of the time indicate lower solar activity, which causes drought and thus famine in the Near East.
    2877 Joseph and family move to Egypt.
    2646 "Step" pyramid of Djoser (Zoser) built at Saqqara, Egypt.
    2590 Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza begins to be built.
    ? [2234] The races are dispersed after Tower of Babble in Iraq (Genesis 10:10,11;11:1-9) during Bronze Age of Human Government

      NOTE: The chronology of specific dates has been the subject of much debate among various scholars over the years.

      Astronomer Barry Setterfield of Australia theorizes that because the speed of light is decreasing geometrically,millions of years could have gone by in our current perception of time. The Bible speaks of this:

      But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day" —Psalm 90:4 (NKJ)Scripture & —2nd Peter 3:8 (NKJ)Scripture

      Bishop Usser defined a timeline based on clues within the Bible.

      Martin Anstey's 1913 "Romance of Bible Chronology".

      Edwin R. Thiele, in his The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (Academie Books, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1983) further untangled the chronology of the monarchic period.

      The stand-off between Biblical and archeological discoveries in Egypt and other countries surrounding Isreal was resolved in 1990 by physicist Gerald E. Aardsma in A New Approach to the Chronology of Biblical History from Abraham to Samuel It concludes that the "480 years" in (1 Kings 6:1) contradicts with Acts 13:19-20 and archealogical records because of an early (rare, homeoarkton) copy error of "1480" years. (Similar to an issue with the transalation of Samuel 13:1)

      Additional information: Creation Research Society and Creation Science and other Creationism sites that bend time


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    Mosaic
    Age of Law


    Egyptian pharoah Phiops II subjegates Isrealistes.
    Moses rescued from the Nile [not by Egyptian princess Hatshepsut 1503-1482]
    2447(+/-12) (1480 years after the Promise was given Abram, per modern reading of 1Kings 6:1) in the jubilee of jubilees (50 x 50 years or 2500 years after the fall of Adam) Moses leads Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 14:23,27-30).
    The 6th Dynasty of Egypt's Old Kingdom under Pharoah Merenre Antyemsaf II (Greek name Niocris) collapses (putting Egypt into Dynasty 7 of the First Intermediate period), by parting and closing of the Yam suth (modern day Lak Yahablah - the Red Sea).
    Ten commandments given apodictic Normative, the beginning of Judaism)
    2407 Hebrews (under Joshua, without Moses) enter Canaan, destroying Jericho and Ai (confirmed by radiocarbon dating of et-Tell digs found in 1934 by Marquet-Krause).
    Hebrew occupation ends the Early Broze III period of Palestine.

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    Casuistic
    (case) Law


    2350 Akkadian kingdom in Mesopotamia established by Sargon lasts 146 years by descendants Rimush, Manishtusu, Naram-Sin, and Shar-kali-sharri. one of them is the Cushan-rishathaim, the first oppessor of Isreal, later delivered by judge Othniel (Judges 3:10)
    2205-1765 Hsia dynasty in China.
    [not 1375] Judges rule: Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon,
    1977-1957 [not 1075] Samson in Gaza, the last judge in the book of Judges.
    Ruth & Boaz (=by his counsel)
    ? Elijah translated (midway between Abraham & Christ)
    (800 year) Biblically quiet period of more Judges of Isreal
    1775 casuistic (case) law Code established by Hammurabi (1792/1728-1686), the Amotittian ruler of Babylonia.
    1766-1121 Shang Dynasty in China is known for its use of acupuncture, elaborate bronze ritual vessels, oracle bones to determine the future, and the earliest standardized form of Chinese charactersanother page on this site
    1628 Volcano erupts in Thesus (modern day Satorini, Greece) destroys the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete, an art-loving culture Homer calls Atlantis.
    1590 Kassites take power in Mesopotamia and Palestine.
    1550(+/-15) Egypt begins New Kingdom period Dynasty 18.
    1500 Hinduism begins in India.

    [1525] Moses saved by princess Nefure, only child of Tutmoses I (Exodus 2:1-10), and lives in the palace as Senmut.
    Nefure becomes Queen Hapsepsut with half-brother Tusmoses II after Moses refused it.
    1458 Tuthmosis III (1516-1426) seiges Meggiddo (among 350 cities) during his 1504-1450 reign of Egypt's 18th dynasty.
    [1445/7-1336] Early date for the Exodus, when Tutmoses IV (Amenhotep III) ruled Egypt.
    Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) and wife Nefertiti changes to monotheistic worship of Aten (in place of Amen) and moves capital from Thebes to El-Amarna.
    Oct. 25, 1404 Mars passes Earth 70,000 miles away, causing a 5 degree Polar shift and days on Earth from 360 to 365.5.
    1300 Temple of Abu Simbel built in Nubia for Rameses II.
    1236 - 1203 Merneptah's campaigns into Palestine.
    1200 Trojan War between Greeks and Trojans, as described in Homer's Illiad.
    1200-1000 Rig Vedas composed in India
    1198 - 1153 Rameses III campaigns into Palestine.
    1191 Zen Buddhism introduced to Japan by Chinese monk Eisai
    1185 Samurai wrest power from aristocracy in Japan
    1122-225 Chou dynasties reign in China
    1070(+/-15) Egypt begins Third Intermediate period Dynasty 21.
    1051(+/-16) Samuel born, ending age of Judges.
    Nebuchadnezzar's dream in Daniel 2 and Revelation 17:10 (7 kings, 5 have fallen) Bablyon Medo-Persia Greece Rome Divided Judgement ChristKingdom Daniel's inspired interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar's dream
    Pop-up this diagram to its own window

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    United and
    Divided
    Kingdoms


    1051(+/-16) Saul unites kingdom of Isreal and begins to reign in the Biblical age of Monarchy.
    1103 BC Brutus (decendent of "low-tree" Zarah who ruled Egypt as son of Joseph, per prophecy in Ezekiel 17:22-24 and 21:25-27) estabishes New Troy in Britain (later to be renamed London).
    980 (within 40 year rule 1010-970) David king (Psalms, 1st Chronicles) establishes Jerusalem
    965 Solomon begins building the temple
    940 Solomon king with 700 wives (Songs, Proverbs, 2nd Chronicles, 1 Kings)
    947 First temple built by Solomon consecrated on 10th Jubilee ( I Kings 9:1-3)
    925/900 Jeroboam 10 tribes split to North from Rehoboam
    Omri's son Ahab & Jezebel hunt Elijah to Mt. Carmel ( I Kings 18)
    871 [RC14 dating at Tel Rehov says not 925] Shishak invasion in year 39 of Solomon/Year 5 of Rehoboam
    880 Asa king of Southern Kingdom of Judah; Joehoshaphat, 7 yr. old Joash
    842 Elijah outs Ahab and Jezebel for their worship of false gods
    814 Jeroboam II king of Israel after Yahwist Jehu coup
    800-600 Upanishads composed in India
    785? Amittai Jonah (=Dove) prophet to Assyrian Ninevah (Greek Ionas) Matt 12:38)
    776 Greeks hold first Olympics in town of Olympia — the first year of the Greek Calendar.
    Northern Prophets: 760-750 Amos, 753 Hosea (harlot wife Gomer)
    753 Foundation of Rome.
    Southern Jotham & Ahaz & Hezekiah: 742 Micah, 740-681 Isaiah
    730 Sparta conquers Messene.
    722 Ten Northern tribes of Israel taken as slaves to Assyra by Shalmaneser on 9th of Az
    710 Hezekiah (715-686) repels Sennacerib (the death angel) from Jerusalem
    753 year 1 AUC (Ab Urbe Condita, meaning "from the foundation of Rome") on the "Kalends of March" (March 1st)
    722 Samarian Isreal falls to the Assyrians.
    701 calendars adjusted (for planetary ressonance with Mars?)
    697 Manasseh bad king of Judah (2 Kgs 21 & 2 Chron. 33)
    669 Babylon destroyed by Assyrians.
    660 Shinto religion defined in Japan during rein of Jimmu, first Japanese emperor.
    640 Zephaniah prophet, 635 Xephaniah, 626 Jeremiah, 620 Nahum, 612 Habakkuk
    630-550 Life of Zoroaster
    621 Josiah (640-609 son Amon) discovers the Law Book of Deuteronomy in the Temple and begins monoatheistic practice
    621 The Laws of Dracon become the first written laws of Athens, Greece. The adjective "draconian" describes its harshness. "We need the death penalty to prevent small crimes, and for bigger ones I can't think of any greater punishment."
    614 Fall of Assyria.
    608-597 Jehoiakim, 597 Ezekiel captive, 593-571 Ezekiel prophesizes
    605 Jehoachin/Jeconiah & Zedekiah exiled, Daniel captured by Medes & Persians.
    604-562 Nebuchadnezzar II rules Neo-Babylonian (Chaldean) Empire and builds the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World".
    600 Taoism religion defined in China by Lao-Tse (604-531) writing Tao-te-Ching ("The Way of Power") which describes the nature of life, the way to peace and how a ruler should lead his life.
    598 First Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem
    594 Solon establishes a constitutional democracy in Athens, and wipes out all debts.
    586/587 on 9th of Az (Ezekiel 12:10-17) Nebuchadnezzer destroys Soloman's temple in Jerusalem during his 2nd Babylonian conquest. This date is an anchor for chronologies.
    583 BC Jeremiah (with Baruch) marries Tea Tephi, a daughter of King Zedekiah, to Eochaidh II (Eremhon), High Zarahite King of Ireland. This exalts the Zarah line from which all the kings and queens of Britain and northwest Europe descend.
    563-483? Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism (later enlighten to Buddha), born in Napal.
    561 Pisistratus, leader of the poor, becomes the tyrant of Athens.
    560 Lao-Tze writes his philosophy.
    551-479 Confucious writes fortune cookie sayings in China
    550 King Cyrus II of Persia founds Persian empire.
    539 Mesopotamian region conquered by Daniel 8:25 fulfills Isaiah 44:28) under Belshazzar.
    520 Cyrus allows Isreal to return from Babylonian Exile (Ezra).
    512 Second Temple of Isreal finished.
    510 Cleisthenes, with exiled Athenian nobles and an army from Sparta, liberates Athenians from Pisistratus and his sons.
    505 Democracy established in Athens.
    477 Athens assumes leadership of the Delian League alliance of the city-states and islands of Greece against the Persians.
    464 Earthquake in Sparta; helots revolt.
    458 On the 20th Jubilee, 7th year into the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus decree allows Ezra to leave Babylon to rebuild Jerusalem. This starts the 490 (70x7) prophasy in Daniel 9:25 to Jesus' death on 1 Nisan (Friday April 15) AD 33.
    434 Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem by Ezra and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 12:27)

    434 [not 490] Battle of Marathon, (coast of Attica) Greece won by Athenians after Persian king Darius I is killed by a Greek beauty.
    424 [not 480] Xerxes ( aka Artaxerxes, son of Darius) destroys an empty Athens after overcoming the heroric 300 Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylae.
    Xerxes leaves the war to Mardonius after defeat by the more nimble Greek navy at the Battle of Salamis.
    425 [not 479] Persians under Mardonius are defeated by allied Greeks at the Battle of Plataea.
    428 (Esther saves her people (celebrated in Jewish Purim festivals).
    403- [according to Thucycides] Sparta defeats Athens in the 27 year Peloponnesian War.
     
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    Inter-
    Testament
    Times

    753 Romulus & Remus (Castor & Pollux) saved by wolves, start of Roman Anno Urbis (ab urbe condita) calendar.
    630 Egyptians ransack the Temple
    606 Babylon captures Jerusalem, the beginning of “times of the Gentiles” Scripture)
    604 Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism, born in China.
    410-322 Age of Socrates (the first to recognize a one true, but unknown, G-d), Plato, and Aristotle in Greece
    403 Start of "Waring States" period in China.
    356 Alexander born to Phillip II of Macedonia, tutored by Aristotle (384-322)
    338 Philip II of Macedonia conquers other Greek city-states in Battle of Chaeronea.
    335 Alexander begins conquest of the known world with Thebes.
    334 Battle of Granicus
    333 At the Battle of Issus, Alexander defeats the army of Persia to control the western Persian empire.
    332 (at age 24) Alexander the Great capture of Tyre fulfills Ezekiel 26:12,4-5,14
    331 Alexander defeats Persian King Darius II in the Battle of Gaugamela (Arbela), Persia (modern day Iraq) which establishes Greece as the world power.
    326 Alexander's invasion of India ends after the Battle of the Hydaspes.
    323 Alexander dies in Babylon, Greek general Ptolemy rule Egypt & Palestine during the Hellenistic age.
    322 Chandragupta founds Mauryan Empire in India.
    312 Greek Seleucid dynasty reigns in Mesopotamia, with Seleucia as capital, infusing Hellenistic culture.
    304 Egypt becomes independent under Roman general Ptolemy I.
    301 Alexander's successors fight at the Battle of Ipsus.
    290 Foundation of library at Alexandria, Egypt.
    285-270 Hebrew Bible translated into Alexandrian Greek Septuagint (=70=LXX in Roman numeral)
    206BC-219AD The Han dynasty (named after a tributary of the Yangtsz river) begin 400 year reign in an empire similar in size and power to that of the Roman Empire. (Korea and Japan still call Chinese glyphs “Han”)
    281-275 Pyrrhus fights in Italy and Sicily.
    264-146 Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage.
    264-241 Rome wins control of Sicily from Carthagians under Hannibal in First Punic War.
    262 Mauryan emperor Asoka becomes a Buddhist and sets up stupas containing a part of the Buddha's body.
    245 Agis attempts reform in Sparta.
    241 Agis is executed by the rich of Sparta.
    221 Qin Shi Huangdi unites China and becomes its first emperor.
    222 Royal lines of Sparta ends.
    218-202 Roman general Scipio wins Second Punic Wars against Hannibal.
    214 Great Wall of China begins construction.
    202 China reunited under Han dynasty.
    198 Syrian Seleucid Antichus III rules.
    197 Rome defeats Macedonia.
    192-188 War between the Seleucids and the Romans.
    168 Greece ends its dominance to Rome (two feet in Rev.).
    167 Syrian Antiochus Epiphanes IV defiles temple with pig & statue of Zeus (Daniel 8: 9-12)
    164 (168-165) Judas Maccabee revolt, Hanukkah begins priestly Hasmonean dynasty
    149-6 Rome destroys Carthage in Third Punic Wars.
    146 Rome obliterates Corinth. All Greece becomes conquered territory.
    129 Jerusalem becomes an independent Jewish capital
    112-106 Rome destroys Juguertia, King of Numidia
    112 "Silk Road" opens from China to the West.
    111 Han annexes North Vietnam.
    100 Anasazi, Hohokam, and Mogollon people populate Southwestern North America.
    100 BCE-250AD Yayoi (metal) period in Japan
    84 Rome (Agricola) repeled by Scottish tribes in Battle of Mons Graupius.
    74 Julius Caesar defeats Pharnakes, king of Pontus (now northeastern Turkey), son of Mithridates
    73-71 Revolt of slave Spartacus vs. Rome
    64 Roman general Pompey conquers Syria.
    63 Roman general Pompey renames Judea & Palestine after subjecting them.
    59 Julius Caesar named consul (highest rank) by the Roman Senate, begins to conquer Gaul and Britain.
    53 Parthians prevent further eastward expansion of Romans.
    Jan. 10, 49 Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon from Gaul into Italy with his army to establish himself as a dictator over Pompey and the Roman nobility.
    48 Julius Caesar defeats Pompey in the Battle of Pharsalus
    46 BC, called the "Year of Confusion" because it consisted of 445 days due to an intercalary month being inserted to get public Roman feasts back to the correct seasons. This calendar change also moved the first day of the year from March 15 (the "Ides of March") when new Roman consuls take office (see Shakespear's Julius Ceasar).
    45 Julian calendar of 12 months and 365.25 days per year (with a leap year every 4 years) instituted by Roman Julius Ceasar.
    40 Jimmu Tenno, first emperor of Japan
    15 (Ides of) March, 44 Assassination of Julius Caesar by Brutus marks the end of the Roman Republic See Shakespeare's play.
    37 Herod the Great, ruling under Roman authority, builds 2nd Temple
    31 Octavius defeats Mark Anthony and Cleopatra of Egypt, ending Roman civil wars at the Battle of Actium, Greece.
    27 Octavius (Julius Ceasar's adopted son) is renamed Augustus Ceasar and replaces Republic.
    19 Herod finishes construction on Temple in Jerusalem.
    14 Augustus deified by the Roman Senate--the first Roman ruler to be worshipped as a son of a god (divi filius)
      4 Death of Herod the Great, Rome-appointed ruler of Judea, Samaria, Galilee, and surrounding territories. His son, Herod Antipas, took lands north of the Galilee and east of the Jordan River. Phillip took the areas east of the Sea of Galilee (the area now called the Golan Heights). Third son, Archelaeus, took the central portion which includes Jerusalem.
    __ Pontius Pilot comes from Rome to be a military "Prefect" over Judea.
    __ John the Baptist born (Isaiah 40:3 & Malachi 3:1)
    __ Mary conceives after the Annunciation
    __ Mary stays at counsin Zacharia & Elizabeth

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    Time of
    Christ

    who split
    time


    6-7 AM Tishri 15 (Sep. 11, 3BC) or Tishri 1 (Sep. 8, 5BC) during the Feast of Trumpets, the first/former rain) Jesus, the Christ (the basis of Christianity) is born in Bethlehem (while flocks are in pasture).
    Sep. 11, 3 BC (Tishri 1) wise men, guided by a star, bring gifts fit for a king to the King of the Jews when he was about two years old. (4,000 years from Adam's Fall)
    27/28 Jesus rides into Jerusalem (on a donkey) as Messiah the prince (the First Advent), as predicted, but not recognized by people at the time.
    April 6, 29/30 AD (Nizon 13) Christ crucified (
    "cut off") as Passover (Pesach) lambs were slain.
    (Nisan 16) Ressurection (Easter) on the Feast of Unleavened Bread

    The Last Supper (with women and children) by Polish artist Bohdan Piasecki

    Scripture “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.” —Jesus in (KJV) Matthew 23:37-38 and Luke 13:34


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    NOTE: The time periods to follow are split based on John (and Jesus Christ's) Letters to the seven churches in the Book of Revelation.

    Set this at top of window. Apostolic Age of Grace:
    The Early Church

    Ephesus in 
    Revelation 2:1

    9 AM, (Sivan 6) 30/33 AD Pentecost , birth of the Body of Christ, the Church, indwelt by the ScriptureHoly Spirit (50 days after Jesus' resurrection). Beginning of the Dispensation of Grace.
    17-24 AD/CE Tacfarinas leads African Numidians in revolt against Romans.
    35-36 AD/CE Saul of Tarsus, a Jew, comes to believe in Jesus as the Messiah and subsequently becomes the apostle Paul
    42 Mark Anthony defeats Caius in Battle of Phillipi.
    43 Romans invade Britain.
    45 Julius Ceasar introduces the 12 month Julian calendar with leap years on advice of Alexandrian astronomer Sosigenes.
    48/49 Council at Jerusalem with bishop James (the helf-brother of Jesus) ( Acts 15:28 Scripture)
    50 Paul leaves Antioch to begin his Aegean Mission. His letters to these congregations are the earliest documents in the New Testament.
    50-52 Paul's visits Corinth for the first time and writes his first letter to the Thessalonians Scripture.
    50 jew Philo writes
    52 Paul visits Ephesus and he writes a letter to the Galatians Scripture and the Corinthians Scripture.
    54-55 While imprisoned in Ephesus, Paul completes a second letter to the CorinthiansScripture and writes a letter to the Philippians Scripture and to Philemon Scripture.
    56 First church Council - formed the Apostle's Creed
    57 Paul's 3rd mission to Macedonia ( Acts 22:17-21, 23:11)
    58-60 Paul is imprisoned in Rome.
    61-63 Roman forces move into Sudan.
    64 Nero Claudius Ceasar (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) persecutes Christians after Fire of Rome. Some believe he is the "beast" described in the book of Revelation.
    64 (60-68) Peter martyred in Rome under Nero.
    68 (60-65) Paul martyred in Rome under Nero.
    69-79 Roman emporor Vespasian reigns.
    70 (on 9th Av) Temple destroyed by Roman general Titus (eldest son of Vespasian) -- as predicted by Daniel 9:26 "The people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary") and Luke 21:24,27
    70 Council at Jamnia codifies canon (books) of the Hebrew Bible.
    100 Buddhism Spreads to China - 4th Council precipitates split of Theravada (hinayana) and Mahayana traditions.
    70-100 Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke written.
    79 In Southern Italy, Mount Vesuvius erupts and destroys the town of Pompeii.
    79-81 Reign of Titus.
    81-96 Reign of the emperor Domitian (Vespasian's younger son and the object of the anti-Roman attack in the Book of Revelation).
    85 "Curse against Heretics" (Birkath ha-minim) added to Jewish synagogue benedictions, with the intent of excluding Christians.
    90 Council of Jamnia produces Jewish scriptures in Greek.
    94 (37-100) jew Flavius Josephus publishes Antiquities of the Jews
    96 (90-110) John, the last apostle alive, pens Book of Revelation (Greek word apocalypse which means disclosure, appearing, coming, uncovering, unveiling, and revealing) and dies in exile on the island of Patmos (Greek word for "mortal").
    96-98 Roman emperor Nerva reigns.
    98-117 Roman Emperor Trajan reigns. In Dante's Divine Comedy, Trajan is the only emperor allowed into heaven. He is so celebrated that all other Roman emperors are honored by the Roman Senate with felicior Augusto, melior Traiano ("may he be more fortunate than Augustus and better than Trajan.").

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    Roman Persecutions:

    Smyrna in
    Revelation 2:8

    107-117 Ignatius (bishop of Antioch) is martyred.
    117-138 Roman emperor Hadrian reigns.
    112 Cornelius Tacitus, Pliny the Younger writes about Jesus.
    120 Suetonicus writes about Jesus in Life of Claudius
    132-135 Second Jewish revolt (the "Bar Cochba" revolt) against Rome.
    136 Second Roman (Hadrian) conquest of Jerusalem.
    ~150 Justin Martyr (100-165) writes First Apology and Dialogue With Trypho defending Christianity as a "philosophy" worthy of the respect of the educated and as the only legitimate heir to the Israelite scriptures.
    Irenaeus writes Against Heresies
    119 Tertullian writes oldest Christian works in Latin
    150 Invention of triangular lateen sails allow Mediterranean ships to tack into the wind.
    156? Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna and younger colleague and admirer of Ignatius of Antioch, martyred.
    161-180 Ceasar Aurelius persecutes and executes Christians.
    185-254 Origen, early church scholar, writes Against Celsus and De Principiis
    200-258 Novation caused split in Rome over what to do with Christians who avoided persecution.
    220 Jewish Mishnah (commentary on the Bible) completed
    200 Indian epics of Rmayana and Mahabharata composed. Creation of Hindu scripture Bhagavad Gita.
    224 Sassanids come to power in Persia.
    249-251 Persecution of the church by Decius.
    265-420 The Qin (Ch'in) dynasty unifies China and standardizes currency, weights, and measures.
    251-356 Antony of Egypt, founder of monasticism, becomes the earliest hermit monk.
    258 Bishop Cyprian, Catholic theologian, martyred
    293 Diocletian divides Roman Empire in two.
    303 Severe persecution of the church by Roman emperor Diocletian.
    304 Invasion of Huns divide China.
    October 27, 312 Battle of Rome's Milvain Bridge leads to succession of Constantine to the throne and conversion to Christianity.
    320 Chandragupta I founds Gupta Empire in Northern India.
    320 Pachomius, a hermit, starts communal monasticism.
    (260-340) Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, writes geography
    372 Buddhism in Pyonyang, Korea
    Athanasius (293-373), Bishop in Egypt, defends Christian Orthodoxy against Arianism. On the Incarnation
    391 First Japanese invasion of Korea.
    420-589 Six Dynasties in China.

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    Set this at top of window. 313-600
    Byzantine Era

    Age of
    Constantine
    (Dark Ages)

    Pergamum in Revelation 2:12


    324 Constantine's Edict of Milan ends Roman persecution with toleration of Christians.
    Flavius Theodosius (January 11, 347-January 17, 395) after reunited East and west fractions of the Roman empire as the last emperor of all Rome, declared Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire.
    325 Lactantius tutors the son of Constantine.
    325 Nicea Council issues Nicean Creed adopted 381
    330 Constantine (280-337) establishes Roman capital in Byzantium (modern Istanbul, Turkey)
    335 Queen Helena builds Church of the Holy Sepulcher
    336 Catholic Church Council of Laodicea shifts services (Mark 7:7-9,13) to Sunday from Saturday (Ezekiel 8:14-16)
    358/359 Patriarch Hillel II implements the modern Jewish Calendar (with disagreement about the proper years for intercalation and the initial epoch).
    378 Goths (Germanic tribes) defeat Romans in Adrianople, Turkey.
    (389-461) Patrick, a missionary to Ireland, encouraged asceticism.
    391-2 Pagan worship (including the Olympics) outlawed throughout Roman empire.
    395 The will of Theodosius I officially splits Roman Empire into Eastern and Western legs.
    397 Council of Carthage defines Canon of 27 NT books; Jerusalem Talmud
    382-405 Jerome completes Latin Vulgate (common) Bible in Jerusalem
    399-414 Fa Hsien travels to India to recover Vinaya
    401 Introduction of writing (kanji) to Japan
    410 Rome sacked by Visigoths from the North
    451 The 4th Council at Chalcedon clarifies orthodox Christology -
      Christ as truly man AND truly divine without Monophysite confusion, mixture; or Nestorian separation.
    476 Fall of last Roman Emperor; Roman monk Dionysius establishes Before Christ/Anno Domini calendar
    476 Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman emperor, is overthrow. Apostles are scattered (Acts 8:1)
    491 Armenian church founded.

    520 Guptas of India invent the decimal system.
    527-529 Canons of the Council of Orange
    533 Ananthemas of the 2nd Council of Constantinople
    533 Roman Emperor Justian retakes northern Africa.
    538 Bishop Silverius of Rome allows Justian's army into Rome (fighting against Goths), and gets banished. Vigilus is appointed Pope (and the seat of Caesar) by Belisarius, Justinian's general. (Daniel 7:24) Popes begins 1260 year rule until 1928.
    539 War between Persians and Byzantines
    540-604 Gregory the Great, a monk, is Pope.
    (480-550) Bendict founds Benedictine monasticism.
    552 Buddhism brought to Nara, Japan.
    552 Justian restores Italy to Roman control.
    587 Visigoths convert to Christianity.
    589 Reunification of China under Sui dynasty.
    618-906 T'ang dynasty reunifies China.
    600 Babalonia Talmud codified
    605 Augustine is sent by Pope to be a missionary to Celtic England.


    604 Prince Shotoku establishes rule of law in Japan

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    Set this at top of window. 607
    Middle Ages

    Thyatira in
    Revelation 2:18

    614 Persians massacre jews in Jerusalem
    610-June 7 During his annual monthly retreat within a desert cave on Mount Hira in Arabia, prophet Mohammed (PBUH), a camel driver from the Quraysh tribe asked to recite the Qur'an (recitation) from Jibril (the angel Gabriel). This is remembered during the 9th month each year with day-time fasting during Ramadan.
    617?618-906 T'ang dynasty in China
    July 16, 622 Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers start a 200 mile Hijrah (migration) from Mecca/Makkah to Madina (Saudi Arabia), an event marked as the first day of each Islamic new year

    627 Byzantine Emperor Heracles defeats the Persian army.
    629-645 Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang collects Buddhist teachings in China, Cambodia, and India, then translates many of the surviving Sutra of the Mahayana Canon into Middle Chinese.
    630 Without a battle, Muhammad's 10,000 man army Jihad (struggle) restores the Ka'bah (first mosque) in Mecca.
    632 Recitations written in the Qur'an and hadith (words of the prophet) in the Sunna are written. It contains the Five Pillars of Islam (submission) followed by Muslims (those who submit to Allah's will).
    ___ Muhammad is helped by the Angel Ji'bril to fly at night to Bethlehem and Jerusalem on the winged mule/donkey Bu'raq. He returns to Mecca after meeting with Jesus and other prophets. Along the way, he also sees Iblis, the Devil Satan. These events are celebrated on Isra'

    632 Muhammad PBUH dies in Mecca, and ascends to Mi'raj (heaven) from the temple mount. His father-in-law, Abu Bakr, is elected by Sunni tribal leaders as the Rightly-Guided caliph (successor).
    634 Abu Bakr dies after appointing Umar I caliph, who conquers Jerusalem, Byzantine Damascus, and Syria.
    635 Buddhism spreads to Tibet
    636 Arabs under Kalid ib-al Walid defeat Byzantines in desert sandstorm at Yarmul (now Isreal).
    644 On his deathbed, Umar names a council which chose Uthman the next caliph, who conquers Persia (Iran).
    656 Ali (cousin/son-in-law to Mohammed PBUH) named first Iman by Shiites (party of Ali) in Iraq.
    657 Al Aksa Mosque construction begins in Jerusalem. “Desolation of abomination" is placed in the Holy Place.
    661 Muawiya takes over as a Sunni caliph after Ali is murdered, beginning the Ummayad dynasty which advanced into Africa.


    665 Muslims conquer Arabs in the Battle of Basra.

    664 Synod of Whitby - Roman Church authority (based on lineage from St. Peter) chosen over Ionian Celtic traditions (for Easter) by Northumbrian King Oswy.
    670 Silla Kingdom defeats other kingdoms in Korea.
    687-714 Pepin II rules after uniting the Franks.
    688-691 Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem's Temple Mount by caliph Abd al-Malik (9th Caliphate 685-705), who also mints purely Muslim coins and declares Arabic the official language.

    700 Masorites divide Tanache (Old Testament) into chapters
    711-715 Muslims Conquor Spain
    726 Byzantine Emperor Leo III declares himself also pope of the Eastern church order after ignoring complaints from icondule Roman Pope Gregory II over iconoclasts destroying the picture of Christ on the gate of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, Turkey).
    732 Muslim reach their limit of expansion when defeated by Charles Martel (“The Hammer”) and his army of French Franks in the Battle of Toursat the Loire River.
    750 The Abbasids headed by al Abbas gain control of the Muslim Empire. Abu Jafar al Mansur moves Muslim capital to Baghdad in Mesopotamia, beginning a golden period when al Khwarizmi invents algebra (al jabr).
    756 After escaping, Abbasid general Abdullah reunites the Umayyad government in Spain; Abd al Rahman begins to build The Great Mosque and libraries in Cordoba, Spain.
    768 Germanic leader Charlemagne named emperor of the former Western Roman empire.
    787 Second Council of Nicea (Seventh Ecumenical Council)
    800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor by Roman Pope at Aachen.
    July 16, 869 Great Filoque Schism of Roman & Byzantine Church (1054?)
    844 Defeat of Picts unites Scotland.


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    Set this at top of window. 500-1500
    Medieval History

    868 The first printed book, the Diamond Sutra, is made in China using wood blocks.
    878 Egyptian Ign Tulum rules
    907-960 Five dynasties and Ten Kingdoms in China
    925 Shisak of Egypt destroys Jerusalem
    960-1129 Northern/Southern Sung dynasties in China
    939 Chinese rule in Vietnam ends
    960 Founding of Sung Dynasty in China
    962 Coronation by Pope of Otto I as Emporor of the Roman Empire.
    969 Descendents of Fatimid (a daughter of Mohammed) conquer Jerusalem from Cairo and North Africa.
    982 Viking warrior Erik the Red settles Greenland.
    1003 Leif Eriksson (son of Erik the Red) sails down North America and names it "Vinland."

    In Dalmatia (Yugolavia) Croats use Roman alphabet, Serbs loyal to Eastern Constantinople church use Cyrillic alphabet invented by missionary brothers Cyril and Methodius.
    1008-1020 Tale of Genji written in Japan
    Inquisitions by Pope Innocent.
    1044 Gunpowder invented in China.
    1053 Western Church insists on the celibacy of its higher clergy. 50 years later church excommunicates all married priests.
    1054 Orthodox Eastern church and Roman Catholic church separate after excommunicating each other in a Great Schism.
    1055 Seljuk Turks from central Asia conquer Baghdad.
    1066 French under William the Conquoror beats Saxon England in the Battle of Hastings at Norman, England
    1071 Byzantine era when muslims defeat Isalamic Ottomans at Anatolia (now Western Turkey).
    1085 Spanish Alfonso VI takes Muslim city Toledo.
    1086 English Doomsday Book published.
    1095 Roman Pope Urban II calls for a holy crusade to protect Christians against muslims on pilgrimages to Jerusalem, And help Italy capture trade through Constatinopole Byzytine (Greek Orthodox) church territory. Other reasons for the Crusades
    1096 First crusades begin.
    July 15, 1099 Crusaders enter Jerusalem.
    1104 Crusaders take Acre in Isreal from muslims referred dervisively as saracen (roughly meaning "Easterners").
    1169 Muslim Saladin becomes King of Cairo, Egypt.
    1170 Thomas Becket (born 1162), Archbishop of Canterbury, is murdered for standing up against the English King.

    1187 After luring Crusaders to a waterless plateu in July and decimating them, Saladin (means "rectifier of the faith") captures Jerusalem from crusaders led by consort Guy de Lusignan (after he was expeled by the Duke of Aquitane, who later became Richard I).
    1187 Medieval Knights restore Jerusalem during 2nd crusade.
    1189 Jews massacred in England during coronation of Richard I.
    1191 Zen Buddhism introduced to Japan by Chinese monk Eisai.
    1204 Constantinople sacked by crusaders during the 4th Crusade.
    1206-1227 Genghis Khan establishes the Mongol Empire
    June 15, 1215 Magna Carter of liberty signed by king John to avert English Barons' War. *
    (1182-1226) Francis of Assisi establishes the Franciscian order.
    1228 Stephen Langston divides the New Testament Bible into chapters.
    (1225-1274) Thomas Aquinas' Scholasticism separates Grace from Nature
    1234 Sun Diata founds the Mali Empire in West Africa.
    1235 Mali defeats Ghana to become the major power in West Africa.
    1236 Cordoba, Spain falls to Christian forces, leaving Berbers in Granada.
    Marco Polo (1254-1324) at age 16 journeys from Venice, Italy to China.
    Feb 10, 1258 Abbasid-Seljuk Baghdad (and its libraries) falls to cavalry of Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) (Tartars) commanded by nomadic Mongols Kublai Khan (1215-1294), grandson of Genghis Khan. Paper currency first instituted.
    1275-1292 Marco Polo in China
    1281 First Mongol invasion of Japan thawrted by Kamikaze (divine/god-wind) typhoons
    1291 Crusades end after 8 wars.

    1304-1374 The first "humanist," Francesco Petrarca, born to become a poet and "father of the Renaissance"
    1345 Black Plague wipes out 30%-50% of Europe
    (1347-1380) Dominican nun Catherine of Siena works miracles.
    1356 Koreans overthrow Mongols
    (1329-1384) John Wycliffe translates Latin Bible into English & converts England
    Timur the Lame (1369-1405)
    1368-1408 Yoshimitsu is third Shogun of Japan
    1368-1611 Ming (“brilliant”) dynasty in China.
    July 6, 1415 Bohemian pastor John Hus, singing, burns for heresy in Prague.
    1453 Ottoman Mehmet II of Turkey captures Constanopole and ends the Byzantine empire.
    1467-1477 Onin War burns everything in Japan


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    Set this at top of window. 1517-1648
    Renaissance/
    Reformation

    Sardis in
    Revelation 3:1


    1429 French heroine Joan of Arc lifts English seige of Orleans, France.
    1448 Russians under Jonas become autosepholis - self governing religiously.
    1453 Turks capture Constantinople (now Turkai) to end the Byzantine empire.
    1455-1485 30-year War of the Roses between Houses of York and Lancaster for the English throne.
    1456 Gutenberg produces German Bibles using movable type
    1462 Grand prince Ivan, in marrying Sophia, niece of Constantine, unites church and state.
    1469 Sikhism (monotheistic non-ceremonial) religion formed by Guru Nanek in India.
    1492 Sulan Muhammad XI surrenders Muslim rule in Spain to Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile.
    1492 Columbus sails the ocean blue while Sephardic Jews are expelled from Spain (on Tisha B'Av), and Mulims flee to Berber Morocco, North Africa.
    1497 John Cabot explores the coast of Newfoundland.
    1497 Vasco da Gama voyages around the Cape of Good Hope for a sea route to India.
    1499 Amerigo Vespucci locates mouth of the River Amazon.

    1512 Michelangelo completes Sistine Chapel frescoes in the Vatican Palace of Pope Julius II (1443-1513), who reigned from 1503 to 1513.
    1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa crosses the Panama Isthmus to discover the Pacific Ocean.
    1516 Desiderium Erasmus of Holland is first to publish Greek New Testament.
    1517 Ottoman Selim I captures Jerusalem
    Oct 31, 1517 Monk Martin Luther (1483-1546) starts the Protestant Reformation by publishing his 95 Theses from Wittenberg, Germany.
    1519 Ferdinand Magellan leaves Spain to make the first sea voyage around the world.
    1525 Led by students of Urich Zwingli in Zurich, Brethren (nicknamed "Anabaptists" for their insistance on adult rather than infant baptism) break from the state-controlled churches in Germany and the Netherlands. Those who follow one of their leaders, Menno Simons (1496-1561), called "Mennonites".
    1526 Babur conquers Delhi, India Battle of Panipat establishing the Mughal empire.
    1527 Sack of Rome by Imperial troops 1534 Henry VIII's Act of Supermacy breaks England from papal supremacy by declaring the king of England to be the head of the Church of England.
    1535 Miles Coverdale finishes the first complete, printed Bible in English.
    1536 John Calvin (1509-1504) writes Institutes of The Christian Religion
    1534 Martin Luther translates the entire Bible into German.
    1536 William Tyndale (b 1490) executed and burned in Vilvorde, Belgium for translating the New Testament Bible into English (from Greek manuscripts). His last words: "Lord! open the King of England's eyes."
    1537 King Henry VIII of England authorizes the "Matthew's Bible" and allows it to be sold and read.
    1539 Copernicus (1473-1543) in Poland publishes (after 30 years) De Revolutionibus (of Ptolemiac theory from Egyptian Claudius Ptolemy about 150 AD) a theory that the Earth is not the center of the universe!
    1538-41 Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent occupies Jerusalem.
    1545 The first Council of Trent (near Salzburg), convened under Pope Paul III, defined Catholic counter-reformation doctrines, including the the pope as "Vicar" of Christ on Earth.
    1549, 2 years after the death of Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer, before being burned as a heretic in 1556, defines Anglican theology (such as "transubstantiation") by publishing the first Book of Common Prayer used in English worship services.
    1551 Robert Stephens Estienne of France divides New Testament verses in the Bible.
    1555 Peace of Augsberg reached by Catholic Charles V with Lutherans.
    1557 Portugese establish settlement in Macao, China
    1565, on St. Augustine's Day, Pedro Menendez de Aviles arrived to establish America's first city on Florida's Atlantic coast.
    1557 first Index of Forbidden Books officially issued under Catholic Pope Paul IV
    1556-1605 Mughal Empire prospers in India under Akbar (the Great).
    1571 Battle of Lepanto in Greece ends Turkish seapower in the Mediterranean.
    4-15 Oct. 1582 Based on a committee led by Naples astronomer Aloysius Lilius, Pope Gregory XIII issues bull "Inter Gravissimus" to implement the Gregorian calendar, fixing vernal equinoxes at 21 March each year and taking 10 days out of the Julian calendar.
    1588 Spanish Armada of 130 ships defeated by storms and the British fleet.
    1598 French Hugonaughts retreat after Edict of Nant
    1590 Hideyoshi Toyotomi (1536-1598) unifies Japan
    1565-1616 Shakespeare, the Bard, writes!
    1611 "Authorized" King James Version of Bible published in English
    Galileo (1564-1642) proposes earth not center of universe
    Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
    1603 Tokugawa Ieyasu takes feudal control. Makes Edo political center of Japan, beginning 300 years of peace.
    1610 Henry Hudson claims New York Hudson Bay for England.
    1618-1648 Thirty Years War between German Catholics and Protestants.
    1619 a Dutch ship brings the first African slaves to the English colony of Virginia.
    16xx upon Iaysu's death, grandson Imaitsu begins parades to Edo by regional daimyos.
    1620 Mayflower Compact drafted by Puritan Pilgrims upon their landing at Provincetown on Cape Cod, Mass.
    1623 William Shakespeare's plays are published in book form for the first time.
    (1624-1691) George Fox establishes the Quaker church.
    1644-1911 Ch'ing dynasty rules into a republic.
    1640 John Harvard establishes university to educate clergy in Boston.
    1648 Peace of Westphalia ends 30 Year War.
    1663 Puritan John Eliot completes a translation of the Bible for the Massachusetts Indians.
    (1628-1688) John Bunyan, English minister and preacher, writes Pilgrim's Progress.
    1683 Ottoman empire defeated at Vienna.
    1693 Jacob Ammon and his followers, Old Order Amish break from Mennonites.
    1699 Guru Gobind Singh organizes Sikhs into the Khalsa (brotherhood of man).

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    Awakening
    1648-1844

    Philadelphia in
    Revelation 3:7-13

    Israel ben Eliezer (1700-1760) the Ba'al Shem Tov (Master of the Good Name) Hasidism from the Ukraine
    1704 British Duke of Marlborough limits French power in Battle of Blenheim, Germany.
    1709 Peter the Great of Russia defeat Swedes under Charles XII to control the Baltic Sea in the Battle of Poltava, Ukraine.
    (1703-1791) John and Charles Wesley (author of Easter hymn MIDI Christ The Lord Is Risen Today initiate the Methodist movement.
    1734-1770 Great Awakening led by Jonathan Edwards from Boston, MA. On 8 July 1741 delivers Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God and other other sermons
    Easter, 1742, Handel's Messiah first performed in Dublin, Ireland.
    1752 England and the American colonies had 354 days becuase of a calendar change lost 11 days.
    1756-1763 England and Prussia wins Seven Years War against Austria and France over control of Germany.
    1759 Britain gains control of Canada in the Battle of Quebec.
    April 1, 1775 "Boston Tea Party" rebellion for British Stamp Act under King George III.
    April 19, 1775 the first shot of the American Revolutionary War begins after Paul Revere rides from Boston toward Lexington and Concord, shouting "the Regulars" (English army, 700 strong) are coming. Over a 1,000 militia poured onto the Battle Road killed over 270 British soldiers vs. 95 colonists.
    July 2, 1776 Declaration of Independence from Britain is signed by 2nd Continental Congress meeting since May in Philadelphia.
    July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence is read from the Old State House in Boston.
    October 17, 1777 British Gen. Burgoyne surrenders 5,800 men to Americans after the Battle of Saratoga, New York. This turning point convinced the French of U.S. strength.
    October 19, 1781 Cornwallis, trapped on the Yorktown, Virginia peninsula, surrends to George Washington's American and French forces in this final victory over Britain.
    November 30, 1782 Articles of Peace officially frees America from England. See Liberty! (the PBS series)

    1788 William Carey starts the India Missionary movement.
    1788 The Constitution of the United States is ratified by the states with the Bill of Rights.
    1793 William Carey goes to India as a missionary from England. Besides building schools and hospitals, he translates and prints portions of the Bible in 45 languages and dialects of India.
    1792-1815 Napoleonic Wars are fought by Napoleon's France against Austria, Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden.
    1798 Nepolean's general enters Rome to depose pope (Rev. 13:15, 17:10), ending 42 months=years (Ezekiel 4:6) of papal supremecy.
    1797 Napoleon conquers Venice
    1805 Unitarians take over Harvard University board
    1805 British admiral Nelson destroys French and Spanish fleet in battle of Trafalgar (South of Spain).
    Feb. 23 1807 Wm. Wilberforce gets Brit. Parliament to abolish slave trade.
    1806 Frances II renounces the title of Roman Empire.
    1808 importation of slaves from other countries banned by U.S. Congress
    1821-1829 Greek War of Independence from Turkey.
    June 18, 1815 Napoleon defeated by British Duke Wellington at Waterloo, Belgium. ;)
    1821 Charles Finney (1792-1875) conducts evangelist campaigns through New England before pastoring Oberlin, Ohio.
    1825-1830 Java War of Indonesians against Dutch.
    1830 Mormon church is organized by Joseph Smith at Nauvoo, Illinois.
    1839 The first baseball game is played in Cooperstown, NY. Phtography invented.
    1839-1842 Opium War in China results in Britain taking Hong Kong and Portugal taking Macao.
    1840 Horace Mann establishes Unitarian public school in Massachusetts.
    1841 Dr. David Livingstone (1813-1873) evangelizes southern Africa
    1844 The Turkish Empire's Edict of Toleration allow Jews to live in their original homeland.
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    Set this at top of window. 1844+
    "Modern" History of
    Apostasy
    and Lukewarm
    Church

    Laodicea in Revelation 3:14-19

    May 23, 1844 (Islamic year 1260) young Persian Mirza Ali Muhammad (later executed July 1850), declares himself the promised Qa'im of Shi'ah Islam and assumes the title of The Báb (Gate) and initiates the unifying Baha'i faith.
    1844 Brigham Young becomes president of the 'Quorum of Twelve Apostles' after Smith is killed by a mob.
    1845-6 fungus on potato from America (and British rule) creates famine in Ireland.
    1846-1848 Mexican-American War.
    June 19, 1846 first baseball game played at Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey
    1848 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels publish the Communist Manifesto in London
    1848 Gold discovered at Sutter's Mill (Sacramento, CA)
    1850 U.S. Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law. The Underground Railroad is formed in response.
    1853-1856 Crimean War in the Black Sea. Turkey, Britain, France, and Sardinia fight Russia.
    1853 American Admiral Matthew Perry's black ships (kunefune) enter forbidden Tokyo Bay to demand terms.
    Feb. 1854 Perry returns to demand regulated trade with Japan
    1858 The 15th shogunate steps down in Japan.
    Jan 1, 1859 - First Modified Julian Dateanother page on this site
    1859 Darwin publishes The Origin of Species with forward by Karl Marx
    Apr. 12, 1861 Charleston's Fort Sumter in S.C. starts the American Civil War.
    October 24, 1861 Western Union completes the transcontinental telegraph service
    July 21, 1861 Confederates under Irvin McDowell lose at the first Battle of Bull Run.
    September 17, 1862 Battle of Antietam, Maryland is the bloodiest one-day fight during the Civil War, with more than 20,000 men killed, wounded, or missing.
    Summer, 1862 The Union's Paninsula Campaign in the Shenandoah Valley and Williamsburg toward Richmond, VA fails. General John Pope is sent West to deal with a Sioux uprising.
    Ambrose Burnside replaces McClellan and attacks the armies of Robert E. Lee and Thomas Stonewall Jackson at Antietam on 17th September.
    Sep. 22, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation (of slaves only in rebellious states) issued by Abraham Lincoln.
    1862 Constantine von Tischendo/ M
    1869rf discovers the Codex Sinaiticus Greek manuscript
    1863 Bahá'u'lláh (The Glory of God) whom Bahá'ís follow is announced as the One for Whom The Bab had prepared the way.


    Nov. 19, 1863 Abe Lincoln delivers Gettysberg Address on the Civil War
    1864 “In God We Trust” first appears on US coins.
    April 14, 1865 Licoln assasinated
    1868 Emporor moves from Kyoto (Western capital) to Tokyo (Easter capital)
    1869 Meiji Restoration (of the Japanese emperor to power for the first time since the Heian Period)
    1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War ends with establishment of Germany.
    1886 Dr. J. Pemberton sells his new drink, Coca-Cola, as a “brain tonic”.
    1873 Remington company mass-produces in America the first modern typewriter.
    1878 Petah Tikvah in Judea and Rosh Pinnah in Galilee are first Jewish villages in Palestine, the planting of modern Israel.
    1882 Chinese Exclusion Act bars for 60 years Chinese immigration into the US.
    1892 Beginning of Zionist return to Jerusalem
    1893 Henry Ford builds his first car (automobile).
    1894-5 Japan invades Korea, China in Sino-Japanese War
    1895 The Niagara Bible Conference listed five unalterable requirements of belief for a fundamentalist individual or group
    1895 Sigmund Freud publishes first work on psychoanalysis, determinism
    Hudson Taylor evangelizes Inland China
    1896 Billy Sunday begins leading revivals in America
    1896 Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) becomes the father of political Zionism by publishing Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), which proposes a Jewish state in Palestine.
    April, 1896 First modern Olympics held in Athens, Greece with 484 athletes from 13 nations.
    Feb. 15, 1898 bombing of USS Maine starts Spanish-American War
    10 Dec 1898, in the Treaty of Peace in Paris, Spain renounced all rights to Cuba, ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the US, and gave up its possessions in the West Indies, and sold the Philippine Islands.
    August 29—31, 1897 First Zionist Congress meets in Basel, Switzerland led by Theodor Herzl
    1899-1902 Boer War ends with British control of South Africa.
    Dec. 17, 1903 Wright brothers of Akron, Ohio fly first motorized bicycle/airpline named "Bird of Prey" at SC.
    April 18, 1906, 700 San Franciscans die in the deadliest earthquake in North American history.
    Speaking in tongues initiates the Azusa Street Pentecostal Revival in Los Angeles.
    1913 U.S. Federal income tax law passes
    1914-18 WWI &“nation against nation", sparked by murder of Ferdinand in Yugoslavia, starts on Tisha B'Av.
    May 7, 1915 United States enters WW I after the torpedo of passenger ship "Lusitania."
    1916 Battle in Somme, France kills 1,265,000 men in less than a week.
    Jan 17, '17 Virgin Islands becomes a US territory.
    Dec. 8, 1917 (7 times 360 years or 2520 years punishment of apostate Israel for her unfaithfulness prescribed in Leviticus 26: 24 & 28) British general Lord Allenby enters Jerusalem after the Turks panicked and left Jerusalem without a shot being fired. An Islamic prophecy predicted that the Turks would lose the city when a man of Allah delivered a notice. The Propaganda leaflets dropped on the Turks were signed by Lord Allenby. When the Turks fled, they left behind a letter of surrender which was brought to the Christian General Allenby when he and his officers were praying.
    1917 British Balfour Declaration "His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish people" begins second Jewish Exodus.
    November 11, 1918 Armistice Day end of World War I when Allied powers signed a cease-fire agreement (truce) with Germany in the Forest of Compiegne at Rethondes, France. Renamed to "Veterans Day" in 1954.
    1921 Prohibition in America
    July, 1925 schoolteacher John Scopes is found guilty of violating the TN Butler bill against teaching evolution in the "Monkey Trial." But as the first American trial to be nationally broadcast on radio, Christian fundamentalism lost ground.

    1928 Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

    Set this at top of window. Lateran Rome Recovery

    Feb. 11, 1928 Dictator Mussolini signs Lateran Pact to settle the Roman Question by establishing Catholic Vatican as a soverign state within Italy. (healing the wound).
    1926 controversial Father Coughlin creates a radio congregation in the US.
    Jan 30 '33 President Paul von Hindenburg appoints Hitler Chancellor of 3rd Reich of Germany
    Nov 10 '38 Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glas) riots destroy Jewish businesses and synagogues throughout Germany
    '36 African-American Jesse Owens wins Berlin Olympics
    Jan 13 '41 Puerto Rico becomes a US territory.
    April 6 '41 Nazis begin bombing Belgrade, Yugoslavia
    Dec 7 '41 Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, US enters WW II
    Dec 25 '41, British-Canadian garrison at Hong Kong surrenders to Japanese.
    '42 Japanes fail to capture Midway Island from the US.
    June 6 '44 D-Day, Allied troops land at Normandie, France.
    May 8 '45 Victory in Europe (VE) Day
    June 26, '45 the United Nations charter (in Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish) was signed by 50 countries in San Francisco.
    Aug. 6 '45 Atomic bomb dropped by Engola Gay on Hiroshima, Japan, killing an estimated 140,000 people.
    Aug. 9 '45 atom bomb dropped by Bock's Car B-29 on Nakasake, Japan. Victory in Japan (VJ) Day.
    '47 Evangelist Billy Graham begins crusades in Charlotte, NC
    May 12, '49 Blockade of Berlin ends.

    May 14, 1948 Israel declares Independence to avoid being partitioned (fulfills Ezekiel 4:3-6, Ezekiel 48, Leviticus 26:18) after 2nd seige by Egypt (Ham), TransJordan, Labanon, Saudi Arabia (Sheba & Dedan), Syria & Iraq (Shem).
    '48 Essenes' Dead Sea scrolls from before 68 AD found in Qumram caves!
    October 1, 1949 The People's Republic of China is formally established.
    June 25, 1950 US-Korean War begins when North Koreans cross 38th parallel.
    '52 Bishop Sheen draws 30 million viewers to his "Life Is Worth Living" TV show.
    Feb 28 '53 Watson and Creek model the DNA.
    '53 Edmund Hillary and guide Tenzing Norgay make first ascent of Mt. Everest
    June 25 '62 Supreme Court bans prayer in school in in Engel vs. Vitale, the first case in which the Supreme Court did not cite any previous precedents or legal cases in making its decision, creating the phrase "separation of church and state".
    60's Vietnamese War, Peace marches,
    April 12, 1961 Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin is the first human put into space.
    Feb 2, '62 The Earth's moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn all align in the constellation Aquarius.
    1965 Jewish atheist psychologist Helen Schucman writes A Course in Miracles
    October 30 1961 USSR detonates 50 megaton (2600 times the Hiroshima bomb) over Novaya Zemla Islands.

    June 5-10 '67 Israel regains Jerusalem after 3rd seige "6 Day War". —the 'Sign of the End of the Age' Scripture Times of the Gentiles fulfilled by the leaves spouting from the Fig Tree with young Israel at 19 years of age.
    June 8 '67 Isreali troops reenter temple area (1035 yrs after 632 AD) as predicted in Zecharia 2.
    '67 Martin Luther King delivers "I Have a Dream" speech in Wash. DC
    __ KSFG, first Christian radio station starts broadcasting from Los Angeles.
    __ Roe [Mary McDonald?] vs. Wade legalizes abortion
    November 22, '63 John F. Kennedy is assassinated
    July, '69 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin are the first men on the Moon
    '69 California is the first state to adopt no-fault divorce.
    October 1969 The Internet is born with a message transported across the ARPAnet from UCLA's Network Measurement Center to Stanford University.
    Apr 29 '75 Saigon falls when Americans leave.

    Sept. 17 '78 Israel makes peace with Egypt (Is this Ezekiel 29:6-7)
    Nov. '78 Jim Jones orchestrates the mass suicide of 912 People's Temple followers in Jonestown, Guyana.
    Nov 4 '79 - 52 American hostages begin 444 days in Teheran, Iran
    '80 Supreme Court removes 10 Commandments from Kentucky schools
    '84 Yogi Shri Haidakhan Babaji (b. 1970) dies in Haidakhan, India after predicting a Great Revolution. He taught Truth, Simplicity, and Love with Karma Yoga (service to humanity)
    Nov 4, '86 Virgin Islands becomes a US territory.
    '87 Supreme Court bans Creationism from Lousiana high schools
    Jim & Tammy Bakker
    Aug. 2, 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait to spark US Desert Storm war
    Aug. 7, '90 American forces arrive in Saudi Arabia — what some see as violating the "one religion" in the holy muslim land of Mecca and Medina.
    Nov. 17 '90 Non-Aggression pact signed between NATO and the Warsaw Pact countries.
    Dec. 25 '91 Gorbachev announces "I cease my activities as President of the U.S.S.R." — ending the Soviet Union.
    '91 Promise Keepers started by coach McCartney
    Aug. 21-22 '92 FBI kills "white separatist" Randy Weaver and family at Ruby Ridge, Idaho
    Sep. 13 '93 Jimmy Carter arranges a 7-year “Peace Accord” Oslo Accords & handshake between Anwar Sadat & Menakim Bagin (fulfills Daniel 9:27?)
    '93 FBI burns down Waco, TX compound of David Koresh
    Apr '94 Mandela (age 75) elected first black President of South Africa

    May 5, '94 Palestinians take Israeli controlled Jericho and 25 square miles of the Gaza strip. (See Joshua 6:26)
    Black churches are burned.
    U.S. withdraws from Somalia after a Bin Laden supported attack.
    Louis Farakah's Million Man March to Washington DC
    Apr. 19 '95 Tim McVay bombs federal building in Oklahoma City, killing 168.
    '96 O. J. Simpson tried and acquitted (media circus)
    '96 Matching christian charity money scheme collapses
    Oct. '96 First Promise Keepers rally at Washington DC
    '97 Hale-Boppers commit suicide
    '97 Monica and Bill Clinton - All the President's Women
    Jan 1 '99 Single European currency (with 11 of the 15 EU member states)
    Columbine High School schooting.
    Jan 1 2000 Millenium madness doesn't happen. Boris Yeltzin hands power to KGB Director Putkin.
    Feb 15 '00 After getting married on "Who Wants to Marry a Multi-millionaire", bride Darva Conga has marriage annuled and later poses in Playboy.
    March 20, '00 the Internet bubble bursts as NASDAQ peaks at 5,500.
    June '00 human genome is mapped
    Sep 11, '01 Al Queda — led by Bin Laden, a Saudi Sunni in Afgahnistan — sends 4 plane into NY WTC, Pentagon.
    2002 Isreal's Jubilee year in the traditional calendar.
    2002 US invades Iraq to replace Iraq's Sunni-led dictatorship with an elected government dominated by the country's Shiite majority. Ironically, Iraqi democracy strengthens Shiites in Iran and Lebanon.
    July 7, 05 Four bombs go off in London
    Feb 06 Syria leaves Lebanon.
    July 06 (9th of Av, Tisha b'Av) Israel failed to decisively win Iranian-Syrian backed Shiite Hezbollah in Lebanon.
    Vali Nasr, in "The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future" (W.W. Norton & Co, 2006) says "The overall Sunni-Shiite conflict will play a large role in defining the Middle East as a whole and shaping its relations with the outside world."

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    Set this at top of window. Future: Judgement


    Scripture “... the sons of Issachar had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do,” —1 Chronicles 12:32 (KJV)

    “I like the dreams of the future better than the history of the past.” —Thomas Jefferson

    “We celebrate the past to awaken the future.” —John F. Kenedy, August 14, 1960

    “Trying to plan for the future without regarding the past is like trying to plant cut flowers.” —Daniel Boorstin, Historian

    another page on this site How to Forecast the future
    another page on this site Possible Future Scenarios

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