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Reload this page Spiritual Words and Topics

This lists the most significant root words in English, Hebrew, and Greek.

The Angel and Warrior Illuminated in Latin manuscript

 

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    Set screen Doctrines of Systematic Theology

      Course the study of ... From Greek ... Bible
      Angelology angels. angelos meaning "angel"
      Anthropology man. anthropos meaning "of man"
      Bibliologyanother page on this site the written word. biblios meaning "book"
      Christology Christ's life and works. christos meaning "Christ"
      Bibliologyanother page on this site "end times" eskhatos meaning "last"
      Ecclesiology the church.  
      Harmartiology sin.  
      Hermeneutics interpretation (of the Bible)    
      Israelology Isreal the country  
      Missiology missions and church growth  
      Pneumatology the Holy Spirit penuma meaning "breath"
      Satanology/
      Demonology
      The adversary, the Devil  
      Soteriology salvation  
      Theology God theos meaning "God"


     

     
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    Set screen People Names

      English Hebrew Greek Latin
      High Mountain Aaron ... ...
      Redness Adam ... ...
      Defender of men ... Alexender ...
      Helper ... Alexis ...
      Manly ... Andrew ...
      Angela ... Messenger, Angel ...
      Strange, foreign Daughter ... Barbara ...
      Son of my right hand Benjamin ... ...
      Pure ... Catherine ...
      Carrier of Christ ... Christopher ...
      God is my judge Daniel ... ...
      Beloved, friend David ... ...
      Bee Deborah Melissa ...
      Lady ... ... Donna
      Gift of God ... Dorothy ...
      Pure ... Catherine ...
      Father rejoices Gail, Abagail ... ...
      Grace, favor Hannah ... ...
      Bright/Shining one ... Helen ...
      Peace ... Irene ...
      He seizes the heel Jacob ... James
      Jehovah is salvation Jason, Joshua ... ...
      Jehova exalts Jeremiah ... ...
      He boholds Jessica ... ...
      Jehovah has been gracious John ... ...
      Jehovah's gift Johnathan ... ...
      Flowing down Jordan ... ...
      Jehova adds Joseph ... ...
      Joyful ... ... Joyce
      Pearl ... Margaret, Megan ...
      Gift of the Lord Matthew ... ...
      Like the Lord Michael ... ...
      Birthday of the Lord ... ... Natalie
      Victory people ... Nicolas ...
      ?All honey ... Pamela ...
      Noble ... ... Patricia
      Small ... ... Paul, Pauline
      Stone, rock ... Peter ...
      Fond of horses ... Peter ...
      Ewe Rachel ... ...
      ?Noose Rebecca ... ...
      ?vision of beauty Ruth ... ...
      Princess Sarah ... ...
      The plain Sharon ... ...
      Listening attentively Simon ... ...
      Crown ... Stephen ...
      Twin Thomas ... ...
      Manifestation of God ... Tiffany ...
      Honoring God ... Timothy ...
      Victory ... ... Victoria
      Conquer ... ... Vincent
      Maiden ... ... Virginia
      Jehovah has remembered Zachary ... ...
      Life ... Zoe ...

     

     
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    Set screen Titles

      English Hebrew Greek Audio
      Devil ... ... ... ...
      G-d (LORD) Adonai ... Kurios ...
      My G-d Elohai ... ... ...
      Father Abba ... ... ...
      Mother ... ... ... ...
      Man ... ... ... ...
      Son (of) Bar ... ... ...
      Daughter (of) Bat ... ... ...
      Prophets ... ... ... ...

      Sect

      a small, exclusive organization that is fundamentally at odds with society and into which members are accepted as a result of their conversion. Sects tend to be transient as they either disappear or lose their distinctive character and become denominations. Christian sects have a particular appeal for the poor and socially dislocated.

      Charisma

      “a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with . . . specifically exceptional powers or qualities . . . which are not accessible to the ordinary person” (Weber); these attributes allow such individuals to lead and inspire without the necessity of formal authority and thereby to function as change agents promoting new meaning systems. Traditionally charisma implied the possession of spiritual gifts.

      Pagan

      The word Pagan was a pejorative term that meant "country dweller," referring to those who didn't accept Christianity and fled to the hills for fear of persecution. It is an umbrella term that covers Wicca and several similar practices. Ron Miller, head of the religion department at Lake Forest College, says Paganism dates back thousands of years and is a blend of the ancient Greek and Roman mystery religions. About 50% of the people of the world are considered pagan.

      Neo-pagan

      a person who follows a religion derived from a specific ancient pagan religion, e.g., Wiccans who follow an ancient Celtic tradition or other neo-pagans who follow Roman, Greek, Egyptian and other traditions. Conservative usage: a form of Satanism.

      Wicca

      a neo-pagan religion with roots in pre-Christian Celtic Europe. Adherents purportedly follow a single rule of behavior: do whatever you wish, as long as you harm nobody, including yourself. Power, manipulation and control of others strictly prohibited; drug usage usually confined to wine. Rare ritual sexual activity, but only in private between committed adult couples. They do not proselytize. Most Wiccans are solitary practitioners; some form democratically organized covens, typically of 5 or more people. Popular

      Wiccans observe eight "sabbats" or seasonal celebrations each year. Four are considered major holidays, tied to equinoxes or solstices.

      During the Oct. 31 celebration of Samhian (pronounced SOW-en,) Wiccans may gather together to share a Dumb Supper. The meal is eaten in total silence and an empty chair is reserved for any visiting spirit or deceased relative. Other rituals may include burying apples and pomegranates to be enjoyed by spirits as they pass through the curtain separating this world from the next.

      The practice of scrying, which literally means "to see," is a favorite on Halloween night. People seek messages or images from beyond by gazing deeply into cauldrons filled with dark liquid or by peering into black mirrors.

      Conservative usage: evil occult practice based on a lust for power and control with rigid ritual practice and heavy illegal drug usage and sexual activity; organized into covens of 13 members each; practice shape shifting (human to animal); active recruiters, particularly of young people.

      Witch

      1. a woman of incredible beauty who enchants another person,
      2. a woman of incredible ugliness; a hag,
      3. a person who worships Satan, has sold her soul to the devil, and devotes her life to harming others.

      Priest

      a religious functionary whose role is to administer the established religion-- to celebrate rituals, enforce rules, and reinforce beliefs. This role is the opposite of the prophet.

      Prophet

      one who confronts the status quo, claiming religious authority. Exemplary prophets live their lives in demonstration of a dramatically different set of values and meanings, such as the Buddha. Emissary prophets confront established powers as one sent by God to proclaim a message, such as most of the Old Testament prophets. Their messages are often ones of judgment and criticism offering reform/change.

     

      About "G-d":
      In Jewish tradition, the name for the creator of heaven and earth is written with a dash instead of the vowel "o" because the word is so sacred that it is never pronounced.

      In the Tanach, reference to the Almighty is made using 4 letters of the Hebrew alphabet: Yud Hay Vav He (contracted to "YHWH" in English). These are referred to as the Tetragrammaton ("four lettered name").

      In English translations of the Tanach, the tetragrammaton appears as "LORD" (with capital letters) because during Bible readings (of, for example, Genesis 14:18-20, 17:1, 21:33) it is utterred using subsititute words adonai ("my Master") or shema ("the Name").

      In French translations of the Tanach, the tetragrammaton appears as “L'Eternal”

      In the Greek Septuagint Bible, the tetragrammaton is Kurios and in the Latin Vulgate it's Dominus

      “No one is to stone anyone until I blow this whistle” —from the movie Life of Brian

      The Bible As It Was by James L. Kugel, professor at Harvard University.

     
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    Set screen Geographical Places

      English Hebrew Greek Audio
      Earth ... כדור הארץ ... ...
      Heaven ... גן עדן ... ...
      Hell ... גיהנום ... ...

      Church

      a conservative, inclusive organization that aims to embrace the entire society and into which members are born, e.g., the Roman Catholic Church in the Republic of Ireland.

      Denomination

      a legally recognized religious organization that is self-governing and has doctrinal authority but that is not inclusive (because that is not possible in pluralistic societies), e.g., Presbyterians and Methodists.

      Cult

      (a word with many meanings which should be used with great care to avoid misunderstanding)
      1. Religious usage: a style of worship and its associated rituals, devoted attachment to a person, principle, or place.
      2. Sociological usage: a cult is a loose association of those who share a private, eclectic religiosity. They are often at odds with society and other religious groups, but are highly individualistic; the survival of the "group" is precarious due to a basic lack of organization, e.g., popular (nonofficial) religious practices such as worship of local holy men and women, astrology, etc.
      3. Popular, media usage: a small, ÒevilÓ or dangerous religious group, often with a charismatic leader, who engage in ÒbrainwashingÓ and other mind control techniques.

      Zionism

      The term "Zionism" and "Zionist" were coined in 1890 by Nathan Birnbaum to refer to the national movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland and the resumption of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel.

     

      Ancient versions of the Bible have survived to this day because Jewish tradition so honor the tetragrammaton that used books are accorded a burial

      The Book of Esther is the only book in the Bible which does not contain this word. It is the only book not found in the Qurom caves.

     
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    Set screen Emotional Conditions

      English Hebrew Greek Audio
      Despair ... יאוש ... ...
      Fear ... פחד ... ...
      Hope ... מקווה ... ...
      Joy ... שמחה ... ...
      Love ... אהבה ... ...
      Reformation ... ... ... ...

      Anomie

      a state of normlessness in which social control of individual behavior becomes ineffective typically because the group's norms have broken down during times of rapid or major social change (Durkheim); occurs when an individual's or group's meaning system fails; a crisis in the moral order of a social group (see mazeway).

      Mazeway

      socially constructed and learned patterns and rules for interaction; mazeway disintegration refers to the failure of such a system and is presumed to call for a response. (see anomie)

      Meaning

      the interpretation of situations and events in terms of some broader frame of reference; meaning is not inherent but bestowed. Legitimations are socially established explanations given to justify a course of acts and generally rest in part on mystification. Theodicies are religious explanations that provide meaning for meaning-threatening experiences such as “undeserved” suffering and death.

      Millenarianism

      the expectation of an imminent disintegration of the entire social order and its replacement with a perfect new order; the term derives from the prophesied reign of Christ for a millennium; apocalypse.

      Conversion

      a transformation of one's self concurrent with a transformation of one's meaning system. Conversion may continue with the commitment process by which the convert increasingly identifies with the group, its meaning system, and its goals.

      Mysticism

      relates to the experience of union with the supernatural. (see numinous)
     

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    Set screen Abstract Concepts

      English Hebrew Greek
      Blessing ... ברכה ...
      Death ... מות ...
      Evolution ... אבולוציה ...
      Friends ... ...
      Glory ... ...
      Holiness ... ...
      Justification ... ...
      Law ... ...
      Oath+Vow ... ...
      Peace Shalom שלום
      Power ... ...
      Prayer ... ...
      Prophecy ... ...
      Promises ... ...
      Salvation ... ...

      Myth

      a story that embodies and explains the sacred truths of a culture, i.e., how the world was created, the relation of the supernatural to humans, etc.

      Deist

      a person who believed in the existence of deity, usually male, but felt that He has not been involved with the world since He created the universe.

      Dualism

      a worldview that holds reality consists of two irreducible modes—good and evil.

      Pluralism

      refers to a societal situation in which no single worldview holds a monopoly. Historic religions were characteristically monolithic: they were the worldview. Opposing views were absorbed, coopted, suppressed or segregated. Pluralism leads to toleration, including the possibility of distancing oneself from all religions, to competing worldviews, to privatization, to the disintegration of a widely shared conception of order which, in turn, may undermine both individual and societal decision making. Instability of sources of legitimacy produces both the development of minority and idiosyncratic definitions of the situation and increasingly secularized political authority.

      Religion

      Substantive definition (defines what religion is): a system of communally experienced beliefs and practices (institution) oriented toward a culturally defined supernatural, transcendent realm/beings.
      Functional definition (defines what religion does for the individual and social group): a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive and long-lasting moods and motivations in people by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic. (Geertz)
     

     
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    Set screen Physical Things

      English Hebrew Greek
      Blood ... ...
      Book ... ... ...
      Scripture ... ...
      Warnings ... ...
     

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    Set screen Descriptive Adjectives

      English Hebrew Greek
      Blessed Baruch ... ...
      Holy Kodosh ... ...
      Joyful ... ... ...

      Sacred vs. profane

      the distinctive characteristic of a religious belief system is the division of objects and symbols into (a) sacred: surrounded by rituals through which one must past, i.e. prayers, sacrifice, purification (b) profane: mundane human activities not “guarded” by ritual (Durkheim).

      Agnostic/agnosticism

      a person who questions the existence of a deity or deities, because of lack of material proof; the belief that the existence of God or gods is uncertain or unknown or unknowable.

      Atheist/atheism:

      a person who does not believe in the existence of a deity/deities; the denial that God exists.

      Fundamentalist

      the most conservative group within Evangelical Protestant Christianity. The movement arose in the late 19th century as a reaction against liberal movements of biblical criticism and analysis. The Niagara Bible Conference (in 1895) listed five unalterable requirements of belief for a fundamentalist individual or group;
      1. the original writings of the Bible were inerrent
      2. Jesus Christ was born of a virgin
      3. through Jesus' death, the relationship between God and Man (which had been damaged by Adam and Eve's sin) has been restored (atonement)
      4. after Jesus' death and burial, he arose again (resurrection)
      5. Jesus' return to earth is imminent (second coming)

      Evangelicals

      a conservative “wing” of Protestant Christianity. The most conservative Evangelicals are Fundamentalists. Evangelicals tend to be less anti-science and less literal in their interpretation of biblical passages than are Fundamentalists. Most evangelicals also believe that:
      1. God appeared on earth in human form as Jesus (incarnation)
      2. any person who accepts that they have sinned and who believes in the atonement of Christ is forgiven of their sins and brought into a close relationship with God (justification)
      3. a new believer undergoes a spiritual rebirth (regeneration of the spirit)
      4. the authors of the Bible were inspired by the Holy Spirit (G-d) -- (inspiration)
      There are many additional beliefs regarded as important by various evangelical organizations. Speaking in tongues is seen by some groups to be a necessary result of salvation.

     

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    Set screen Action Verbs

      English Hebrew Greek Sermon
      Adopt ... ... ...
      Baptize ... ... ...
      Bless ... ... ...
      Cheat ... ... ...
      Condemn ... ... ...
      Die ... ... ...
      Divorce ... ... ...
      Fear ... ... ...
      Heal ... ... ...
      Kill ... ... ...
      Lie ... ... ...
      Live ... ... ...
      Marry ... ... ...
      Love ... ...
      Pray ... ... ...
      Promise ... ... ...
      Redeem ... ... ...
      Rejoice Roni ... ...
      Reveal ... ... ...
      Revive ... ... ...
      Santify ... ... ...
      Sacrifice ... ... ...
      Sin ... ...
      Trust ... ...
      Warfare ... ...

      Magic

      human attempts to influence or manage supernatural powers.

      Ritual

      the most directly observable, manifest, and salient part of a religious observance, often used interchangeably with rite; symbolic actions that represent religious meanings. Beliefs represent the cognitive elements of religion where ritual is the enactment of religious meaning. Ritual transforms time and space. Experience includes all of the individual's subjective involvement with the sacred (numinous). Prayer, meditation, dancing and singing are all common settings for encounters with the supernatural. Community shapes and enhances religious experience providing the setting for ritual and a sense of belonging as well as definitions of situation, norms, roles, and reinforcement of meaning.

      Satanic Ritual Abuse (SRA)

      psychological, sexual, and/or physical assault committed by two or more people whose primary motive is to fulfill a prescribed religious ritual involving the worship of the devil. A large percentage of the population (90% in Utah) believe that SRA is widespread. Studies of SRA have revealed it to be essentially non-existent.

      Sorcery

      the use of black magic to harm other people. (see witchcraft)

      Satanism

      a religion in which Satan is worshipped, either as a deity or as a principle. Adherents purportedly follow simple rules of behavior: give kindness to those who deserve it; indulge in your lusts and wants; seek vengeance rather than turning the other cheek. Although their beliefs are different from Christianity, Satanists are not particularly anti-Christian. They may include insulting references to Wicca in their rituals. Satanists are either dabblers or members of the Church of Satan, Temple of Set or Church of Satanic Liberation. Their membership in North America is unknown.
      Conservative usage: a violently anti-Christian religion worshipping Satan; a secret conspiracy which engages in satanic ritual abuse and human sacrifices - usually of children; membership rapidly rising. Some fundamentalists define all non-Christian faith groups as Satanic.

      Voodoo

      a folk religion found in Haiti (vodum=spirit); African and Christian elements are mingled with beliefs and rites of the voodoo cult.

      Witchcraft

      rituals of Wiccans, the religion of the ancient Celts. Other uses: mystical power (or skill) used to harm others or use of evil powers to harm or manipulate others. Believed to exist in many cultures, probably in all cultures at some time.

      Privatization

      the process by which certain institutional spheres (religion, family, leisure, arts) are segregated from the dominant institutions of the public sphere (economics, politics, law). This segregation means that the norms and values of the private sphere are increasingly irrelevant to the operations of the public sphere institutions. The functions of meaning and belonging are also increasingly relegated to the private sphere.

      Secularization thesis

      a historical process by which religion is losing a presumed central place in society, perhaps as an unavoidable consequence of modernization, though institutional differentiation, changing patterns of legitimation and authority, rationalization, privatization, and individuation. It implies a unilinear historical development positing an inevitable decline of religion and/or religiosity.

      Rationalization

      the process by which certain areas of social life are organized according to the criteria of mean-ends or functional rationality, which leads to many changes including disenchantment—the process by which things held in awe or reverence are stripped of their special qualities emptying the world of angels, holy objects, etc. Science is a major player in this process with its definitions of real as empirical knowable/measurable.

     

     
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    Set screen Points in Time

      English Hebrew Greek
      Beginning ... ... ...
      End ... ... ...
      ForeverLe'olam ... ...

      Eschatological

      relates to the world's final outcomes
      1. naturalistic refers to cyclical rhythms of nature
      2. eternalistic refers to an endless cycle; the goal is to be freed of the time-space cycle
      3. historical refers to harmony - disharmony restoration sequence

      Preterism

      a viewpoint that places many or all Eschatological events in the past, especially during the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 since Christ's second coming has already occurred, so we are now living in the New Heavens and the New Earth. So the Scriptures do not speak of any future eschatological events. Thus, the Preterist view downgrades the veracity of prophetic scriptures.

     

     
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