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This page provides a concise but yet deep step-by-step instructions to automate installation of Microsoft Windows 2008, 2003, 2000, with links to other tips, tricks, and tweaks.


Set this at top of window. Minimum Configurations

    For a standard server:

    • Pentium 133 with ACPI system BIOS available after Jan. 1999.
    • 256 MB RAM
    • 2 GB HD (1.2 GB free) (Windows will not install if there is less than 850 MB).

    Winnt32.exe checks for free space before copying
    [DiskSpaceRequirements] are in Dosnet.inf

  • CDROM or DVD, keyboard, mouse
  • Pagefile

    Note: "RAM disk" is NOT an installation procedure.

    Windows 2000 Pro's stated requirement is 650MB disk space, but more is needed for temporary files and setup files.


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Set this at top of window. Upgrading


  • The Directory Services client software on Windows 9x and Windows NT 4.0 Workstation computers provides some of the advantages of Windows 2000 Active Directory.
  • A great reason to upgrade from NT4 to Windows 2000 and Active Directory is not having to maintain two-way trust relationships between domains, which can be time-consuming for a large international network.
  • A clean install is much more reliable approach, so don't upgrade production servers.
  • Microsoft's separate SMS (System Management Services) product automates installation and upgrades of applications.
  • To migrate from NT4, you can upgrade in-place or restructure for Active Directory features.


  • Windows 2000 Server can only be converted from NT4 and NT 3.51, not NT4 Enterprise Server nor NT 3.1 nor Windows 9x.
  • Dual boot is not supported for Windows NT4 and Windows 2000 on the same (C:) partition disk storage unit.
  • Windows 2000 Professional does NOT support RAID-5 volumes.
  • Some manufacturers may provide migration DLLs.
  • To convert from FAT16 to FAT32, you must reformat the partition.
  • A reinstall is necessary to upgrade Windows 2000 Server to Windows 2000 Advanced Server.
  • Unlike NT4, a reinstall is NOT required to promote a member server to a domain controller.


    Precautionary Steps

  1. Use Microsoft's Readiness Analyzer to identify known software and hardware incompatibilities. (Where x: is the Windows 2000 installation CD-ROM):
      x:/Winnt32.exe /checkupgradeonly
    Run on Windows 9x, this generates file %windir%\UPGRADE.TXT. Run on Windows NT, this generates file %systemroot%\WINNT32.LOG. Reminder This is not a substitute for application functionality testing.
  2. Upgrade network client computers before upgrading domain controllers.
  3. Have at least one BDC in each domain. This prevents the domain from being orphaned if you lose a PDC during upgrade.
  4. Immediately before performing the upgrade, take clients offline and synchronize the BDC's.
  5. Take one BDC on the domain off-line to preserve the SAM database.
  6. Conduct a full backup, then test restore from backupsanother page on this site on a machine to make sure that you can.
  7. Create an Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) before and after upgrades to more quickly recover the system partition.
  8. Start with the forest root, which is automatically the first domain controller installed.
  9. In a dual-boot system, first install the OLDEST OS (Windows 98) in the C:\ drive, then NEWEST OS (Windows 2000).


webpage article Win98 to Win2K Upgrade at The Tech Guide

Microsoft sites:

Windows 2000 upgrade site.

Windows 2000 Pro Deployment Guide describes use of SMS for installation.

tool Harware Compatibility List (HCL)

tool Software Compatibility List

For experienced NT4 pros taking the Accelerated 70-240 exam, Microsoft offers Course 1560 - Updating Support Skills from Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 to Microsoft Windows 2000


Microsoft Webcast February 21, 2000 Dual Boot Considerations with Windows 2000

Microsoft Webcast August 22, 2000 Migrating Windows 95 and Windows 98 to Windows 2000

Microsoft Webcast February 22, 2000 Migrating to Windows 2000

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Set this at top of window. Preparations (of Ingredients)

    What to do before sitting down in front of the server:

  1. Machine Names
  2. How many servers and what are the names of the servers? A medium sized shop would typically have:
    • An internal file server inside the DMZ to handle intranet traffic. Conversion from NT4 would involve at least a PDC and BDC's.
    • An external web server outside the DMZ to handle customer activity.

    Most organizations use a pattern to naming servers consistently. Using real country and city names may cause confusion later. Because Windows creates one pool of alias from both computer names and user names, use different naming schemes for computer and user names. Otherwise, you may get this message from the Service Control Manager on boot-up:

      The Messenger service terminated with service-specific error 2270

  3. Static IP Addresses
  4. What is the IP address of your DHCP, Gateway, WINS, Exchange and other servers? Servers must have static IP addresses, not dynamic addresses issued by DHCP.

    To list descriptions of TCP/IP /adapters on a machine (and whether each is DHCP Enabled), run this from the Resource Kit:

  5. Domain Names
  6. What is the existing internal and external domain name?

  7. NWLink
  8. Installing a NetWare requires Frame type (default 802.3), Network Number, and Internal Network Number.

  9. Static DNS Root Name and Addresses
  10. The first domain controller is also called the "root" server. This role cannot be dynamically transferred to another machine.

    Therefore, a DNS server, gateway server, and/or proxy (accelleration) server must be installed before member servers. Before a server is promoted to be a domain controller, the DNS server must exist or it will install DNS services on the server.

  11. Backup device/media
  12. Rather than installing on top of the existing drive, I prefer completely removing the existing drive and installing a new hard drive. This makes for instant fall-back. The price for a hard drive and the time savings is almost equivalent to a backup media.

    Backing up data

  13. International Settings and Localized Versions
  14. All versions of Windows 2000 provide multilingual editing, viewing, and printing capability. To enable the Multilingual Editing and Viewing feature of the English Version to allow users to edit, view, and print information in more than 60 languages, check the "Language Settings For The System" box. To support Greek language system settings, the Greek language group must be installed from the installation CD-ROM. This requires a restart.

    For Native Language Support (NLS), install an edition of a Translated Version from separate CD's.

    The MultiLanguage Version of Windows 2000 Professional allows the user to dynamically switch among the user interface language. Predefined language schemes define locale information. elect any installed language. However, all 16-bit code, bitmaps, registry keys, values, folders, and filenames are not localized. To install language setting files, use the Windows 2000 MultiLanguage Version Setup utility:


  15. Special Keyboards
  16. Special keyboards are available for some languages (such as French).

    Microsoft Keyboard Tricks


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  1. Drivers
  2. The three types of drivers are:
    • vendor-supplied device drivers.
    • generic device drivers for modems and disk drives; and
    • standard Plug and Play device drivers for PC Cards, such as Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) version 5. x drivers for network adapters and miniport drivers for Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) cards; To support Plug and Play capability, Windows 2000 creates a unique device ID called the Card Information Structure (CIS) before installs a driver to support the PC card.

    Windows 2000 supports CardBus 32-bit PC Card controllers for high-bandwidth I/O operations such as video image playback. Within the Add/Remove Hardware Wizard, PC Card cards and slots are listed within the PCMCIA Adapters category because that's their legacy.

    CHKUPGRD.EXE can no longer be downloaded from Microsoft???

  3. Memory
  4. To see how much memory a machine has installed, right-click “My Computer” and select Properties. Here's a translation table:
      Store Properties
      128 MB 130,548 KB RAM
      256 MB 261,684 KB RAM

    To display properties of objProc objects in WBEMClass "Win32_Processor", run this from the Resource Kit:

      Name                = Intel Celeron processor
      Current Voltage     = 33
      Device ID           = CPU0
      cpu Status          = 1
      Data Width          = 32
      Current Clock Speed = 499
      L2 Cache Size       = 128
      Level               = 6
      Ext(ernal) Clock    = 83

    To display properties of objMBOI objects in WBEMClass "Win32_MotherboardDevice", run this from the Resource Kit:

      Name = Motherboard
      Device ID = Motherboard
      Primary Bus Type = PCI
      Secondary Bus Type = ISA

    To display properties of objCache objects in WBEMClass "Win32_CacheMemory", the Size and Error Correction type used by your Cache, run this from the Resource Kit:

      Name               = Cache Memory
      Error Correct Type = Unknown
      Location           = Internal
      Max Cache Size     = 32
      Name               = Cache Memory
      Error Correct Type = Unknown
      Location           = External
      Max Cache Size     = 2048

  5. CDROM Drives
  6. To display properties of objInst objects in WBEMClass "Win32_CDRomDrive", information about your CDROM drives, run this from the Resource Kit:

      Manufacturer:               (Standard CD-ROM drives)
      Description:                CD-ROM Drive
      Drive:                      G:
      Status:                     OK
      Media Loaded:               No
      Volume Name:
      Volume Serial Number:
      Maximum Component Length:
      Device ID:                  IDE\CDROMPIONEER_CD-ROM_DR ... 
      PNP Device ID:
      SCSI Target Id:             0
      Drive Integrity:            
      Config Manager Error Code:  0
      Config Manager User Config: False
      Creation Class Name:        Win32_CDROMDrive

    To display properties of objIRQ objects in WBEMClass "Win32_IRQResource", run this from the Resource Kit:

      Name = IRQ9
      IRQ Number = 9
      Hardware = True

  7. Hard Disks
  8. Reminder Unlike NT4, which required a pre-existing FAT partition, Windows 2000 can be installed onto unformatted hard disks.

    To display properties of objInst objects in WBEMClass "Win32_DiskDrive", run this from the Resource Kit:

      Description:        QUANTUM FIREBALLP LM20.5:   Disk drive
      Status:             OK
      Media Loaded:       Yes
      Partitions:         2
      System Name:        WILSON
      Manufacturer:       (Standard disk drives) QUANTUM 
      Model:              FIREBALLP LM20.5
      Size:               20,546,749,440
      Total Cylinders:    2,498
      Total Heads    :    255
      Total Sectors:      40,130,370
      Total Tracks:       636,990
      Sectors Per Track:  63
      Tracks Per Cylinder:255
      Bytes Per Sector:   512
      Name:               \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE0
      Creation Class Name:Win32_DiskDrive

    To display properties from a query of WBEMClass "Win32_LogicalDisk", the capacity of drives, run this from the Resource Kit:

      DeviceID          Size
        A:         1,457,664  bytes
        C:    10,273,341,440  bytes
        D:     3,076,218,880  bytes
        E:    10,263,298,048  bytes
        F:     7,150,190,592  bytes
        G:       630,411,264  bytes
        H:     not available 

    To display properties of objects in WBEMClass "Win32_LogicalDisk", the free space available on drives, run this from the Resource Kit:

      DeviceID     FreeSpace
        A:         1,270,272  bytes
        C:     2,695,028,736  bytes
        D:     2,660,216,832  bytes
        E:     2,571,280,384  bytes
        F:     1,809,567,744  bytes
        G:     not available 
        H:     not available 


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  1. Web server SSL Certificate
  2. If you're setting up a secure web server, you'll need a 128-bit certificate from VeriSign, GlobalSign, or Thawte to process https traffic. Verisign's SGC (Server Gated Cryptography) certificate upgrades 56 bit browsers to 128 bit.

  3. Cookie Encryption Certificate
  4. If you store data in cookie files on user machines, they need to be encrypted before storage and decrypted on retrieval. Software which implements this feature uses an Entrust encryption certificate.

  5. Personal Email Encryption S/MIME Certificate
  6. If you want to send secure email on a new workstation, you need to export the certificate from your old machine to a backup medium, then import it in your new machine. First, have an encrypted emailed to you so you can use it to install your recipient's public key. This only works with Outlook and does NOT work with Hotmail.

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Set this at top of window.

  1. BIOS Settings
  2. There are several BIOS manufacturers on the market. Each of them offer a different BIOS configuration program. If you have an AMD BIOS, press Del right after you power-up your machine.

    To display internal info about the BIOS on your machine, run this from the Resource Kit:

    Set BIOS USB settings

    USB CD-ROM may be used for installation. USB devices must be enabled in the BIOS for Windows to list them in Device Manager.

    Enable BIOS Plug-and-Play

    To avoid installation problems on Gateway and some other OEM computers, press F8 or Del immediately after power-up to enable the BIOS to detect plug-and-play settings.

    Set BIOS Boot Sequence

    For fastest boot-up, my favorite is "C:, CDROM, A:". This is the fastest.

    To Display Bus Name, Num, Type, for each Device ID for your local machine, run this from the Resource Kit:


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Set this at top of window. Alternatives for Automating Installations

    There are two versions of the Windows 2000 setup program:
    WINNT.EXE for upgrading from Windows 9x

    To install on dissimilar hardware, use the /Syspart parameter to WINNT32.EXE. It specifies the file copy phase of setup to be performed not on computers targeted for installation, but to a physical secondary drive's primary partition with no OS installed on the reference computer. The /tempdrive parameter specifies where $WIN_NT$.~LS.

C. These programs can refer to answer file instead of waiting for a response from an operator standing by.


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Set this at top of window. I386, Slipstreaming, and Hotfixes

    The files used to install Windows is in the I386 folder on install CDs from Microsoft.

    Before use, this folder needs to be Slipstreamed with the lastest Service Pack — SP3 (124 MB file w2ksp3.exe) — Microsoft's Windows 2000 Downloads site.

    To slipstream a Service Pack into the I386 folder:

      UPDATE -s:distribution_folder

    The distribution_folder in most shops is a share to a folder on a machine containing Windows 2000 source files. This machine should be protected to avoid propagating viruses. If multiple languages are managed, I386 may be subfolders under "EN-US" and others.

    Slipstreaming updates a Layout.inf file which points to the correct location of system and setup files, such as the service pack distribution location. Also maintained are files dosnet.inf, txtsetup.sif, and a new file.

    Hotfix (Security Update) files are copied into the I386 folders.


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Set this at top of window. Manual Diskette Installation

    Make Boot-up Diskettes

    If your CD is NOT bootable, create a set of 4 boot-up diskettes on another computer Use one of the two programs on the MAKEBOOT folder within the setup CD of any Windows 2000 product. Where x: is the CD drive:
      c:> x:
      x:> cd \bootdisk
      x:> makebt32 a:

    Disk #1 is bootable and contains CD drivers.

    You will get the following message if you use setup diskettes created with makeboot.exe instead of makebt32.exe on a machine with Windows 9x OS already installed:

      File \ntkrnlmp.exe could not be loaded
      The error code is 7


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Set this at top of window. Install Windows 2000 Support Tools

    Windows 2000 Support Tools in are installed by running either the Setup.exe or Windows Installer 2000rkst.msi from the \Support\Tools folder of the Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit CD.

    This does not extract files in, which include:

    Setupmgr.exe does not specify optional components nor create txtsetup.oem files. Subfolders in the destination folder have to be created manually.


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Set this at top of window. Automated Installation

    Installation of Windows 2000 can be automated at three levels of complexity (A,B,&C below):

    If you want to install Windows 2000 from scratch (not upgrading) and have a bootable CDROM:

  1. change the BIOS to boot first to CDROM, then the C: drive;
  2. get Setupmgr.exe and use it to create an Unattend.txt file;
  3. Use a text editor to add calls to create Environemtn strings, shares, etc.
  4. Copy the Unattend.txt file as WINNT.INF on a diskette. An unattended setup from a bootable CD expects a file named WINNT.SIF on the root of the floppy disk. This file contains information from the unattend.txt file.
  5. Shortly after booting up the machine, press Enter when you see

    Press Enter to boot from CDROM ...

  6. Insert the floppy containing the WINNT.INF file
  7. When you get to the “You have successfully completed Windows 2000 setup”screen captured manually install Service Packs and applications.

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    To totally automate Windows 2000 Server install, including service packs and apps:

  1. Set the BIOS to boot first to floppy, then C: drive;
  2. Create a Cmdlines.txt file containing run commands to install service pack and tools ;
  3. Define keystroke scripts for use by Microsoft's ScriptIt tool.
  4. Create a Windows 98 bootable floppy disk
  5. Create a Windows Install CD ROOT folder. Under it create an UENGLISH (or another language) folder. Under that create folders ADV_SRV, PRO, and SERVER, depending on the edition desired.
  6. Copy the Windows 2000 install CD onto the ROOT folder
  7. Remove the Read-only attribute from files now on the hard drive
  8. SlipStream another page on this site onto the distribution share the latest Windows Service Pack (w2ksp2.exe)
  9. Create an Unattend.txt file in the I386 folder;
  10. Optionally ... webpage article Bypass the Windows 2000 Serial Check: In folder I386 file setupp.ini, replace the 3 X's at the end of key Pid= with “270”.
  11. Under I386, create the $OEM$ folder and populate it with folders and files A website external to this site containing application installers.
  12. Make a distribution sharepoint from the modified I386 folder or create a bootable CD
  13. Insert that CD in the CDROM drive of the machine to be initiated;
  14. On each machine to be installed, bootup from a floppy or open a Command Console
  15. Invoke WINNT32.EXE This is automatic if the Unattend.bat file is called from the AUTOEXEC.BAT file on the boot-up floppy disk.
  16. Use this on Systems Management Server (SMS) to install multiple systems.
    If you want to install many Windows 2000 Pro (not Server) machines with similar hardware, perform “Cloning” from snapshot images of entire partitions created using Symantec Norton Ghost or PowerDrive's DriveImagetool.

  • Copy the unattend.txt file as Sysprep.ini in the Sysprep folder.
  • Get and run Netset.exe [Q268781] to restore TCP/IP settings destroyed by Sysprep [Q271369]

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Set this at top of window. Bootable and Autorun CD-ROMs

    Windows 2000 CD's are bootable! However, some older CD readers are not bootable, and some older computer BIOS do not support the El Torito format for Bootable CD-ROM (no emulation mode).

    Windows 2000 boots a CD if it sees files BOOTCAT.BIN and BOOTIMG.BIN on the root folder.

    Windows XP also require the xpboot.bin bootsector file on the root. Get it here or extract it from a bootable CD using the tool ISObuster utility

    To get an application installation to automatically install on its own, the CD needs to contain autorun.exe and autorun.inf files in the drive's root.

      A sample autorun.inf file
    specifies the exe file to open and
    where icon image can be found. (in an exe or a separate .ico file).

    Most people use Intel machines, so the Mips and Alpha sections are not necessary.

    If you do slipstreaming, you may want to burn your own CD.


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Set this at top of window. Files from the Resource Kit

    The executable and sample files for automating installations are available from several sources:

  1. Setup Manager Tool (Setupmgr.exe) tool
  2. Use the Setup Manager instead of Notepad or Wordpad to create a list of computer names to be installed. Such a file is usually on a diskette for use on different machines.


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    There is a slight difference between Sysmgr and Windows 2000:

    From System Manager:
From Windows 2000 Pro:

Set this at top of window. WINNTX Invocation

    The Setup Manager Wizard creates an unattend.bat file.

      set AnswerFile=.\unattend.txt
      set SetupFiles=F:\i386

      F:\i386\winnt32 /s:%SetupFiles% /unattend:%AnswerFile% /noreboot /tempdrive:D

    When installing with DOS, use winnt switch /u instead of /unattend and /udf.


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Set this at top of window.Unattend.txt by Setup Stage

    After the machine boots up and invokes WINNT or WINNT32, Windows 2000 server Setup goes through several stages:
    1. Pre-Text (Setup Loader) mode
      • SCSI Drivers: If your SCSI devices doesn't offer direct support, press F6 at the initial text-mode setup phase and load the SCSI driver from the manufacturer.
    2. Text mode Specify new or upgrade. Accept the licensing agreement. Select an installation partition.
    3. GUI phase Enter the product key. Enter user and organization name. Specify regional settings and a password. This includes:
      • Networking: Networking settings and components are detected, installed, and configured along with workgroup and domain membership information.
      • Final Setup: Start menu programs are installed, components are registered, and temporary setup files are removed.


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    Set this at top of window. 1. Pre-Text (Setup Loader) mode

    During the Pre-Copy phase, all the files needed for the installation are copied to temporary folders on the local hard drive.
    Manual StepUnattend.txt [section headers], keys, and values
    These settings allow Windows setup to run without prompting for user inputs:
      WINNT32 /Unattend:A:\Winnt.sif

    The answer file must be named Winnt.sif and be placed on a floppy disk inserted into the floppy drive as soon as the computer boots from the CD-ROM drive. (Don't wait for a prompt. None will be issued.)

    GUI User Interaction Level sets UnattendMode =
      =Hide pages does not show pages with default values
      =ReadOnly prevents presets from being altered by the installer.
      =Provide defaults allow users to view and modify answer entries.
      =Fully automated
      =GUI attended requires the installer to answer every question.
    Yes results in the contents of $OEM$ folder in the distribution folder to be copied to a temporary folder on each new computer's hard disk, such as the Cmdlines.txt file containing script code to install applications. OemPreinstall=No
    The default DriverSigningPolicy is Warn. Block if you're sure all drivers are signed. Set to Ignore at your peril. DriverSigningPolicy=Ignore
    During Setup, an existing FAT32 file system can be automatically converted to NTFS. WARNING: Even if you select just one partition before selecting "NTFS", you will end up formatting the entire drive and all partitions on that physical drive. FileSystem = ConvertNTFS

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    Set this at top of window. 2. Text mode

    During the Text Mode phase, you are prompted for the information necessary to complete the installation.
    Manual StepUnattend.txt [section headers], keys, and values

    Licensing Agreement

    Unlike Windows NT, you don't have to scroll through before pressing F8.

    User Identification Settings

    Your choices for Regional Language settings, User Name, Company are stored in the Registry. These settings are overidden for machine "C1" by this entry in the .udf Differences file on this page:
    Fullname= "Your User Name"
    Computername= "COMPUTER_NAME1"

    Licensing Mode

    The "Per Server. Number of Concurrent Connections" default is 5. Select "Per Server" licensing unless users will logon to several servers at the same time. Change to "Per Seat" can only occur once.
    If No, Internet Explorer is configured set by values in the Branding .ins file created by Microsoft's Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK). This file is at the root of the \$OEM$ folder of the distribution share point. [Branding]
    ; IEBrandingFile="IEBrandingFile.ins"
    VGA Modes [Display]

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    Set this at top of window. 3. During Setup GUI Phase:

    Manual StepUnattend.txt [section headers], keys, and values

    Computer Name and Administrator Password

    The Administrator Password is stored in encrypted form. Unlike Windows NT, Windows 2000 passwords are case sensitive. Asterisk (*), sets the password to NULL.

    TimeZone for Win2000 is a number rather than the NT4 text such as "(GMT-05:00) Eastern Time (US & Canada)".

    OemSkipWelcome is only recognized by Win2000 Pro.

    Admin AdminPassword=*

    Dial-Up Networking


    "Networking Settings"

    Proxy_Override=*; <local>

    "Windows 2000 Components"

    You can add more components after initial installation in Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs.
    Same as WINNT32 command-line switch /cmd or WINNT command-line switch of /e. [SetupParams]
    These lines specify commands that run the first time a user logs on. [GuiRunOnce]
    Command0="rundll32 printui.dll, PrintUIEntry /in /n \\home\printer1"

    "Performing Final Tasks"

    Commands in the Cmdlines.txt within the $OEM$ folder are run at the end. Example:
      start /wait \\server\app1\setup.exe

    In GUI mode, after Date and Time Settings, if you've selected Terminal Services in the previous step, a panel will appear for you to select Remote Administration Mode or Applications Server Mode.

    If you've selected "Message Queue", you will need to click "Finish" installation after you press Ctrl-Alt_Del to sign on. In other words, you're not really Finished when you press Finish.

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    Set this at top of window. Uniqueness Database File (UDF)

    The UDF overrides specifications in the unattend.txt answer UDB file.

    Reminder Answer files for DCPROMO should contain literal paths rather than variables such as %SystemRoot%.

    In the [UniqueIds] section, specify the section name.

    The UDF file is invoked ???

    If only a single item is specified in the [UniqueIds] section, ???

        IPAddress =
        IPAddress =

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Set this at top of window. Cloning with Sysprep.exe


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    Set this at top of window. Setupcl.exe sidgen

    The SID of the cloned system is located in registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \SYSTEM \CurrentControlSet \Control \SessionManager

    This is changed by Setupcl.exe invoked by Setup.

    Other advanced settings:

    • Telephony settings
    • Regional/language settings
    • Adding printers
    • Running commands after the first logon

    Group Policy Object (GPO) Software Installation and Maintenance program deployment methods:

    • Published applications
    • Assigned applications
    • Advanced published or assigned

    Set this at top of window. Sysdiff

    Sysdiff identifies differences on the hard disk before and after an application was introduced. But I don't use it because too many things can go wrong.


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Set this at top of window. Remote Installation Services (RIS)

    RIS enables both auto-bootup and OS image transfers so that Windows 2000 Professional can be installed with minimum physically “babysitting” each client computer. RIS does not install NT4 Pro nor Win2000 Server.

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    Set this at top of window. Remote Boot Disk and the PXE Protocol

    Manual intervention at target client machines is minimized if it supports remote booting one of two ways:
    • The computer has a NIC card containing a boot ROM that meets Download the Intel Spec 2.1 PDF file PXE protocol standardsDownload the Intel Spec 2.1 PDF file. A PXE-based remote boot ROM network adapter is included on computers that are Net PC-compliant or PC98-compliant systems, which do not support ISA another page on this site adapters. Intel calls this LSA (Link-State Advertisement) broadcast packet (also called Link State Packet) used by link-state protocols (such as OSPF) that contains information about neighbors and path costs. LSAs are used by the receiving routers to maintain their routing tables.
    • The computer has a PXE emulator boot floppy generated by running the Remote boot disk-generating utility included with Windows 2000 Server folder REMINST\ Admin\ I386\
      This supports a limited number of (“top 15 highest-rated”) network cards, such as from 3Com.

      Microsoft Webcast June 8, 2000 Windows 2000: Remote Installation Services by Bo Downey

    webpage article Microsoft Remote Operating System Installation White Paper explains PXE clients.

    webpage article TechNet article on RIS from
    $35 Windows 2000 Deployment and Desktop Management, New Riders, April 2000

    Auto booting is achieved by these steps:

    1. A PXE-enabled client broadcasts a DHCPDISCOVER network service request message on DHCP standard port 67. As part of its initial request, the client sends out from its BIOS its GUID (Globally Inique identifier) that uniquely identifies the client machine.
    2. A DHCP server which recognizes PXE protocols -- a Proxy DHCP Server -- responds thru port 68 with a list of Boot Servers in an extended DHCPOFFER message.
    3. The client selects and discovers a Boot Server via port 67 or multi/unicast port 4011.
    4. The user is prompted to press F12 to initate service from the selected RIS server.
    5. The PXE client uses BINL (Boot Information Negotiation Layer) services via port 4011 to check in Active Directory for a pre-staged client computer account associated with the GUID.
    6. The Boot Server unicasts a DHCPACK back to the client with the name of the executable boot image.
    7. The client uses TFTP via port 69 to download the file from the RIS Boot Server.
    8. Optionally, the client can request a credentials file.
    9. The PXE client executes the NBP (Network Boot Program) during its Initial Program Load (IPL) process.
    10. The PXE client contacts the Trivial File Transfer Protocol Daemon (TFTPD) on a RIS server listening for requests to download and run a Client Installation Wizard (CIW) file name OsChooser.exe.
    11. The CIW prompts the user to log on so the RI Server can query Active Directory for a RIS Group Policy that specifies the options avaialable to the uesr.
    12. The CIW reformats hard disks and performs an unattended Remote OS installation.

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    Set this at top of window. Remote Installation Server Setup

    Remote Installation Services Help ???

    download Microsoft's (unsupported) ScriptIt Utility White Paper [Q191605] for NT4

    After installing applications (such as Word, Excel, etc.) onto a reference client machine, run RIPrep.exe — the RIS image Preparation tool — to create and upload an image file to an RIS server.

    RIS is often installed on a DHCP server because it requires active DHCP scopes to obtain an IP address using BINL (Boot Information Negotiation Layer) service the querys Active Directory.

    The server must be noted as authorized in the DHCP Manager MMC. Otherwise, it will be shut down as a roque server.

    When installing Remote Installation Server onto a Windows 2000 server, use a user account which has been assigned the "Log On As a Batch Job" right.


    After installation, the Remote Installation service must be explicitly set to respond to requests from Computers and Users MMC properties:

    On the RIS machine, client Images are stored on a separate partition —the RIS volume. The Single Instance Store (SIS) service reduces disk space requirements by monitoring the RIS volume and substituting a link to duplicate files.

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Set this at top of window. Review Setup errors

    Review these files in %systemroot% created during setup according to the type of error:

      Setupact.log - chronological Setup activity -- all files listed copied locally during setup.
      Setuperr.log - Setup errors
      Netsetup.log - Workgroup and domain membership information
      Setupapi.log - .INF file entries
      Comsetup.log - Component Object Model (COM) setup routines
      Mmdet.log - multimedia device detection results, installation and resource allocation
      IIS5.LOG - installation and configuration of Internet Information Services (IIS) 5

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Set this at top of window. Remote Server Administration

    In order for Administrators to remotely manage servers from Windows 2000 Professional workstations, install the Administrator Tools package from the Windows 2000 Server CD.

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