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    Set screen SNMP = Simple Network Management Protocol

      SNMP provides standardized, extendible, and portable Network Management features:
      • Configuration Management - Keeping track of device (SNMP managed nodes) inventory, configuration, provisioning (settings and how they function).
      • Fault Management - Proactively and reactively dealing with problems and emergencies in the network. (router stops routing, server loses power, etc.)
      • Performance Management - How smoothly is the network running? Can it handle current and future workload?

      SNMP was first developed in 1988 as part of the TCP/IP suite to exchange information about the configuration and status of nodes.

      SNMP defines the arrangement of messages sent to configure, monitor, and control bridges, hubs, routers, network servers, and other equipment.

      This Network Managment system is based on the Manager/Agent paradigm:

      • Agent servers running on each managed node collecting information about the device it runs on.

      • Manager clients running on a management workstation requesting information about devices on the network. This Network Management Station (NMS) Microsoft calls its SNMP Console:
        • installed from Windows Component > Management and Monitoring Tools
        • invoked from the MMC Computer Management console > Services and Applications > SNMP Services.


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      Management system clients "pull" data from agents by issueing GET status inquiries (e.g., to monitor printer queues) and SET requests to manage devices. The Console also send management information to:

      • set up addresses for devices
      • assign priorities for communication
      • install software on the network
      • manage databases

      Agent SNMP servers respond to GET commands with GET-RESPONSE message back to the SNMP Console.

      Agent servers also "push" trap messages to clients, reporting extraordinary events.

      Microsoft Windows 2000 uses the separate SNMP Trap Service (snmptrap.exe) to receive trap messages from agents.

      Proxy agents cache and translate data between the network and devices that cannot implement SNMP. On Microsoft Windows the SNMP Agent is the SNMP Service (snmp.exe) automatically started by default.

      On Microsoft machines, SNMP stores it configuration in Windows Registry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/System/CurrentControlSet/Services/SNMP.

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    Set screen Management Information Bases (MIBs)

      SNMP messages interact with virtual management information bases (MIBs) that define the properties of objects used to manage physical devices on the network, stored as objects formatted in Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1).

      The 1988 MIB-1 [ RFC 1212/1215] has 114 entries.

      The 1990 MIB-II [ RFC 1158/1213 SNMPv1] MIB-2 has 171 entries to also include data on TCP/IP traffic, routing, configuration, and errors. HP has defined their own MIB structure.

      MIB conforms to the tree-like SMI (Structure of Managment Information) given in RFC 1155. For example, the UPS standard MIB has three sections:

      1. Controls store GET and GET-NEXT messages received from NMS to remotely control the UPS for performing tasks such as battery test, shutdown, startup, etc.

      2. Alarms and Traps store TRAP messages which inform the NMS about significant events (utility power failure, battery low, output overload, etc.)

      3. GET Status Variables identify the manufacturer, model and software version of the UPS. It also contains dynamic information (input voltage, output voltage, output load, etc.)

      Secure SNMP Configuration

      To communicate with each other, SNMP consoles and devices must all be configured with the same SNMP Community Name.

      To have the system automatically send an alert message if a nondefined host attempts to send a request to the server, check security option “Send authentication trap”.

      To prevent a SNMP Agent from processing Set requests for a community of servers, set Read-Only community rights.

      Events that trigger SNMP traps are configured on Windows 2000 using the “SNMP Event to Trap Translator”.

      webpage article The latest SNMP vulernabilities


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